Help:Formula
MediaWiki uses a subset of AMSLaTeX markup, a superset of LaTeX markup which is in turn a superset of TeX markup, for mathematical formulae. It generates PNG images by default. Alternatively, the MathJax renderer can be selected in the user preferences: this uses a combination of HTML and CSS to display the equation.
Although, in all cases mentioned, Template:TeX is generated by compilation, and not by an interpreter program, there is one essential difference between, e.g., Knuth's TeX or Lamport's LaTeX and the present implementation: whereas in the first two cases the compiler typically generates an allinone printable output, which has the quality of a whole book with all chapters, sections and subsections, and where no line is "special", in the present case one has, typically, a mixture of Template:TeX images (more precisely: PNG images) for the equations, embedded into usual text, and with short Template:TeX elements usually replaced by HTML parts. As a consequence, in many cases TeXelements, e.g. vector symbols, "stick out" below (or above) the text line. This "sticking out" is not the case in the abovementioned original products, and the HTMLsubstitutes for small Template:TeX additions to the text are often insufficient in quality for many readers. In spite of these shortcomings, the present product characterized by "many embedded PNGimages" should be preferred for small texts, where the equations do not dominate.
More precisely, MediaWiki filters the markup through Texvc, which in turn passes the commands to Template:TeX or MathJax for the actual rendering. Thus, only a limited part of the full Template:TeX language is supported; see below for details.
To have math rendered in a particular MediaWiki installation, one has to set $wgUseTeX = true;
in LocalSettings.php.
Contents
 1 Basics
 2 Template:TeX vs HTML
 3 Formatting using Template:TeX
 3.1 Functions, symbols, special characters
 3.1.1 Accents/diacritics
 3.1.2 Standard numerical functions
 3.1.3 Bounds
 3.1.4 Projections
 3.1.5 Differentials and derivatives
 3.1.6 Letterlike symbols or constants
 3.1.7 Modular arithmetic
 3.1.8 Radicals
 3.1.9 Operators
 3.1.10 Sets
 3.1.11 Relations
 3.1.12 Geometric
 3.1.13 Logic
 3.1.14 Arrows
 3.1.15 Special
 3.1.16 Unsorted (new stuff)
 3.2 Larger expressions
 3.3 Alphabets and typefaces
 3.4 Color
 3.5 Formatting issues
 3.6 Commutative diagrams
 3.7 Unimplemented elements and workarounds
 3.8 Examples of implemented Template:TeX formulas
 3.8.1 Quadratic polynomial
 3.8.2 Quadratic formula
 3.8.3 Tall parentheses and fractions
 3.8.4 Integrals
 3.8.5 Matrices and determinants
 3.8.6 Summation
 3.8.7 Differential equation
 3.8.8 Complex numbers
 3.8.9 Limits
 3.8.10 Integral equation
 3.8.11 Example
 3.8.12 Continuation and cases
 3.8.13 Prefixed subscript
 3.8.14 Fraction and small fraction
 3.8.15 Area of a quadrilateral
 3.8.16 Volume of a spherestand
 3.8.17 Multiple equations
 3.9 See also
 3.10 References
 3.11 External links
 3.1 Functions, symbols, special characters
Basics
Math markup goes inside Template:Tag.
The Template:TeX code has to be put literally: MediaWiki templates, predefined templates, and parameters cannot be used within math tags: pairs of double braces are ignored and "#" gives an error message. However, math tags work in the then and else part of #if, etc. See Template:Tim for more information.
LaTeX commands
LaTeX commands are casesensitive, and take one of the following two formats:
 They start with a backslash \ and then have a name consisting of letters only. Command names are terminated by a space, a number or any other "nonletter".
 They consist of a backslash \ and exactly one nonletter.
Some commands need an argument, which has to be given between curly braces { } after the command name. Some commands support optional parameters, which are added after the command name in square brackets []. The general syntax is:
\commandname[option1,option2,...]{argument1}{argument2}...
Special characters
The following symbols are reserved characters that either have a special meaning under LaTeX or are unavailable in all the fonts. If you enter them directly in your text, they will normally not render, but rather do things you did not intend.
# $ % ^ & _ { } ~ \
These characters can be entered by adding a prefix backslash:
\# \$ \% \textasciicircum{} \& \_ \{ \} \~{} \textbackslash{}
The other symbols and many more can be rendered with special commands in mathematical formulae or as accents.
The backslash character \ can not be entered by adding another backslash in front of it (\\); this sequence is used for line breaking. For introducing a backslash in math mode, you can use \backslash instead.
The command \~ produces a tilde which is placed over the next letter. For example \~n gives ñ. To produce just the character ~, use \~{} which places a ~ over an empty box. Alternatively \sim produces a large centred ~ which may be more appropriate in some situations, but may not render properly in simple expressions which are converted to HTML.
Similarly, the command \^ produces a hat over the next character, for example \^{o} produces ô. If you need in text to display the ^ symbol you have to use \textasciicircum.
Spaces
"Whitespace" characters, such as blank or tab, are treated uniformly as "space" by LaTeX. Several consecutive whitespace characters are treated as one "space". See below for commands that produces spaces of different size.
LaTeX environments
Environments in LaTeX have a role that is quite similar to commands, but they usually have effect on a wider part of formula. Their syntax is:
\begin{environmentname}
text to be influenced
\end{environmentname}
Environments supported by Wikipedia include matrix, align, etc. See below.
Rendering
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): e^{{i\pi }}+1=0\,\!  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): e^{{i\pi }}+1=0\,\!  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \definecolor {red}{RGB}{255,0,0}\pagecolor {red}e^{{i\pi }}+1=0\,\! 
By default, the PNG images are rendered black on white, with a transparent background. On darker backgrounds, the characters may show white edges. To remove these, match the PNG background color with the background color of the page using \pagecolor
. However, black text on a dark background is hard to read and should be avoided altogether where possible.
The colors, as well as font sizes and types, are independent of browser settings or CSS. Font sizes and types will often deviate from what HTML renders. Vertical alignment with the surrounding text can also be a problem (see bug 32694); a workaround is described in the "Alignment with normal text flow" section below. The css selector of the images is img.tex
.
The alt text of the PNG images, which is displayed to visually impaired and other readers who cannot see the images, and is also used when the text is selected and copied, defaults to the wikitext that produced the image, excluding the <math>
and </math>
. You can override this by explicitly specifying an alt
attribute for the math
element. For example, <math alt="Square root of pi">\sqrt{\pi}</math>
generates an image Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\sqrt {\pi }}
whose alt text is "Square root of pi". This should not be confused with the title attribute that produces popup text when the hovering over the PNG image, for example <math title="pi">\pi</math>
generates an image Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pi
whose popup text is "pi".
Apart from function and operator names, as is customary in mathematics, variables and letters are in italics; digits are not. For other text, (like variable labels) to avoid being rendered in italics like variables, use \text
, \mbox
, or \mathrm
. You can also define new function names using \operatorname{...}
. For example, \text{abc}
gives Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\text{abc}}
.
Latex does not have full support for Unicode characters and not all characters render. Most Latin characters with accents render correctly. However some do not, in particular those that include multiple diacritics (e.g. with Latin letters used in Vietnamese) or that cannot be precomposed into a single character (such as the uppercase Latin letter W with ring), or that use other diacritics (like the ogonek or the double grave accent, used in Central European languages like Polish, or the horn attached above some vowels in Vietnamese), or other modified letter forms (used in IPA notations, or African languages, or in medieval texts), some digram ligatures (like Ĳ in Dutch), or Latin letters borrowed from Greek, or small capitals, as well as superscripts and subscript letters. For example \text{ð}
or \mbox{ð}
, and \text{þ}
or \mbox{þ}
(used in Icelandic) will give errors.
Template:TeX vs HTML
Template:Main Before using Template:TeX markup for producing special characters, it should be noted that, as this comparison table shows, sometimes similar results can be achieved in HTML, with Template:Math or Template:Bigmath (also see: Help:Special characters).
Template:TeX syntax  Template:TeX rendering  HTML syntax  HTML rendering 

\alpha\,\!

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \alpha \,\!  {{math<VAR>α</VAR>}}

Template:Math 
f(x) = x^2\,\!

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): f(x)=x^{2}\,\!  {{math''f''(<var>x</var>) {{=}} <var>x</var><sup>2</sup>}}

Template:Math 
\sqrt{2}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\sqrt {2}}  {{math{{radical2}}}}

Template:Math 
\sqrt{1e^2}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\sqrt {1e^{2}}}\!  {{math{{radical1 − ''e''<sup>2</sup>}}}}

Template:Math 
\sqrt{1z^3}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\sqrt {1z^{3}}}\!  {{bigmath{{radical1 − ''z''<sup>3</sup>}}}}

Template:Bigmath 
The codes on the left produce the symbols on the right, but the latter can also be put directly in the wikitext, except for ‘=’.
Syntax  Rendering 

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω 
α β γ δ ε ζ 
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Φ Ψ Ω 
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π 
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞ ≈ ∝ = ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥ × · ⋅ ÷ ∂ ′ ″ ∇ ‰ ° ∴ ∅ 
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞ 
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ ¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀ ⇒ ⇔ → ↔ ↑ ↓ ℵ  – — 
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ 
The project has settled on using both HTML and Template:TeX because each has advantages in some situations.
Pros of HTML
 Formulas in HTML behave more like regular text. Inline HTML formulae always align properly with the rest of the HTML text and, to some degree, can be copiedandpasted (this is not a problem if Template:TeX is rendered using MathJax, and the alignment should not be a problem for PNG rendering once bug 32694 is fixed).
 The formula’s background and font size match the rest of HTML contents (this can be fixed on Template:TeX formulas by using the commands
\pagecolor
and\definecolor
) and the appearance respects CSS and browser settings while the typeface is conveniently altered to help you identify formulae.  Pages using HTML code for formulae will load faster and they will create less clutter on your hard disk.
 Formulae typeset with HTML code will be accessible to clientside script links (a.k.a. scriptlets).
 The display of a formula entered using mathematical templates can be conveniently altered by modifying the templates involved; this modification will affect all relevant formulae without any manual intervention.
 The HTML code, if entered diligently, will contain all semantic information to transform the equation back to Template:TeX or any other code as needed. It can even contain differences Template:TeX does not normally catch, e.g.
{{math''i''}}
for the imaginary unit and{{math<var>i</var>}}
for an arbitrary index variable.  Unlike generated bitmaps, HTML is not sensitive to dots per inch variances between viewing platforms.
Pros of Template:TeX
 Template:TeX is semantically more precise than HTML.
 In Template:TeX, "
x
" means "mathematical variable Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): x ", whereas in HTML "x
" is generic and somewhat ambiguous.  On the other hand, if you encode the same formula as "
{{math<var>x</var>}}
", you get the same visual result Template:Math and no information is lost. This requires diligence and more typing that could make the formula harder to understand as you type it. However, since there are far more readers than editors, this effort is worth considering if no other rendering options are available (such as MathJax, which is available to logged in users as an preferences optin).
 In Template:TeX, "
 One consequence of point 1 is that Template:TeX code can be transformed into HTML, but not viceversa.Template:Ref This means that on the server side we can always transform a formula, based on its complexity and location within the text, user preferences, type of browser, etc. Therefore, where possible, all the benefits of HTML can be retained, together with the benefits of Template:TeX. It is true that the current situation is not ideal, but that is not a good reason to drop information/contents. It is more a reason to help improve the situation.
 Another consequence of point 1 is that Template:TeX can be converted to MathML (e.g. by MathJax) for browsers which support it, thus keeping its semantics and allowing the rendering to be better suited for the reader’s graphic device.
 Template:TeX is the preferred text formatting language of most professional mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. It is easier to persuade them to contribute if they can write in Template:TeX.
 Template:TeX has been specifically designed for typesetting formulae, so input is easier and more natural if you are accustomed to it, and output is more aesthetically pleasing if you focus on a single formula rather than on the whole containing page.
 Once a formula is done correctly in Template:TeX, it will render reliably, whereas the success of HTML formulae is somewhat dependent on browsers or versions of browsers. Another aspect of this dependency is fonts: the serif font used for rendering formulae is browserdependent and it may be missing some important glyphs. While the browser generally capable to substitute a matching glyph from a different font family, it need not be the case for combined glyphs (compare ‘ Template:IPA ’ and ‘ a̅ ’).
 When writing in Template:TeX, editors need not worry about whether this or that version of this or that browser supports this or that HTML entity. The burden of these decisions is put on the software. This does not hold for HTML formulae, which can easily end up being rendered wrongly or differently from the editor’s intentions on a different browser.Template:Ref
 Template:TeX formulae, by default, render larger and are usually more readable than HTML formulae and are not dependent on clientside browser resources, such as fonts, and so the results are more reliably WYSIWYG.
 While Template:TeX does not assist you in finding HTML codes or Unicode values (which you can obtain by viewing the HTML source in your browser), copying and pasting from a Template:TeX PNG image in Wikipedia into simple text will return the LaTeX source.
 Template:Note unless your wikitext follows the style of point 1.2
 Template:Note The entity support problem is not limited to mathematical formulae though; it can be easily solved by using the corresponding characters instead of entities, as the character repertoire links do, except for cases where the corresponding glyphs are visually indiscernible (e.g. – for ‘–’ and − for ‘−’).
In some cases it may be the best choice to use neither Template:TeX nor the HTML substitutes, but instead the simple ASCII symbols of a standard keyboard (see hereafter, for an example).
Using MathJax
The MathJax renderer, selectable through My Preferences  Appearance  Math, uses a very different system to the standard texvc renderer. Rather than rendering a static image on the server side a combination of JavaScript, HTML and CSS is used to locally construct the formula. This allows highquality typesetting, and other problems such as font sizes not matching your browser settings or wrong baselines are fixed as well. MathJax may also reduce the download time of images but entails a small delay as the JavaScript interpreter runs to render the formulas. (After the small delay, the vertical dimension of the displayed page tends to update asynchronously—math content usually becomes taller—which can cause a disorienting jump in the document view position in some user agents; speedy mousewheelers might wish to check into this as part of their usability evaluation.)
Alternatively to the preferences option, MathJax can also be selected using the mathJax user script. It is the basis for the global option, and hence more experimental but also more up to date. Bug reports are taken care of at the script's talk page.
The quality of font rendering is dependent on your browser and operating system. Speed and appearance can be improved by installing the STIX fonts; for installation details see the MathJax font help page. Further information is also available at this page.
Formatting using Template:TeX
Functions, symbols, special characters
Accents/diacritics  

\dot{a}, \ddot{a}, \acute{a}, \grave{a}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\dot {a}},{\ddot {a}},{\acute {a}},{\grave {a}}\! 
\check{a}, \breve{a}, \tilde{a}, \bar{a}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\check {a}},{\breve {a}},{\tilde {a}},{\bar {a}}\! 
\hat{a}, \widehat{a}, \vec{a}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\hat {a}},\widehat {a},{\vec {a}}\! 
Standard numerical functions  
\exp_a b = a^b, \exp b = e^b, 10^m

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \exp _{a}b=a^{b},\exp b=e^{b},10^{m}\! 
\ln c, \lg d = \log e, \log_{10} f

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \ln c,\lg d=\log e,\log _{{10}}f\! 
\sin a, \cos b, \tan c, \cot d, \sec e, \csc f

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sin a,\cos b,\tan c,\cot d,\sec e,\csc f\! 
\arcsin h, \arccos i, \arctan j

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \arcsin h,\arccos i,\arctan j\! 
\sinh k, \cosh l, \tanh m, \coth n

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sinh k,\cosh l,\tanh m,\coth n\! 
\operatorname{sh}\,k, \operatorname{ch}\,l, \operatorname{th}\,m, \operatorname{coth}\,n

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \operatorname {sh}\,k,\operatorname {ch}\,l,\operatorname {th}\,m,\operatorname {coth}\,n\! 
\operatorname{argsh}\,o, \operatorname{argch}\,p, \operatorname{argth}\,q

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \operatorname {argsh}\,o,\operatorname {argch}\,p,\operatorname {argth}\,q\! 
\sgn r, \left\vert s \right\vert

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \operatorname{sgn} r,\left\vert s\right\vert \! 
\min(x,y), \max(x,y)

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \min(x,y),\max(x,y)\! 
Bounds  
\min x, \max y, \inf s, \sup t

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \min x,\max y,\inf s,\sup t\! 
\lim u, \liminf v, \limsup w

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lim u,\liminf v,\limsup w\! 
\dim p, \deg q, \det m, \ker\phi

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \dim p,\deg q,\det m,\ker \phi \! 
Projections  
\Pr j, \hom l, \lVert z \rVert, \arg z

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Pr j,\hom l,\lVert z\rVert ,\arg z\! 
Differentials and derivatives  
dt, \operatorname{d}\!t, \partial t, \nabla\psi

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): dt,\operatorname {d}\!t,\partial t,\nabla \psi \! 
dy/dx, \operatorname{d}\!y/\operatorname{d}\!x, {dy \over dx}, {\operatorname{d}\!y\over\operatorname{d}\!x}, {\partial^2\over\partial x_1\partial x_2}y

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): dy/dx,\operatorname {d}\!y/\operatorname {d}\!x,{dy \over dx},{\operatorname {d}\!y \over \operatorname {d}\!x},{\partial ^{2} \over \partial x_{1}\partial x_{2}}y\! 
\prime, \backprime, f^\prime, f', f'', f^{(3)}, \dot y, \ddot y

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \prime ,\backprime ,f^{\prime },f',f'',f^{{(3)}}\!,{\dot y},{\ddot y} 
Letterlike symbols or constants  
\infty, \aleph, \complement, \backepsilon, \eth, \Finv, \hbar

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \infty ,\aleph ,\complement ,\backepsilon ,\eth ,\Finv ,\hbar \! 
\Im, \imath, \jmath, \Bbbk, \ell, \mho, \wp, \Re, \circledS

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Im ,\imath ,\jmath ,\Bbbk ,\ell ,\mho ,\wp ,\Re ,\circledS \! 
Modular arithmetic  
s_k \equiv 0 \pmod{m}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): s_{k}\equiv 0{\pmod {m}}\! 
a\,\bmod\,b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\,{\bmod \,}b\! 
\gcd(m, n), \operatorname{lcm}(m, n)

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \gcd(m,n),\operatorname {lcm}(m,n) 
\mid, \nmid, \shortmid, \nshortmid

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \mid ,\nmid ,\shortmid ,\nshortmid \! 
Radicals  
\surd, \sqrt{2}, \sqrt[n]{}, \sqrt[3]{x^3+y^3 \over 2}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \surd ,{\sqrt {2}},{\sqrt[ {n}]{}},{\sqrt[ {3}]{x^{3}+y^{3} \over 2}}\! 
Operators  
+, , \pm, \mp, \dotplus

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): +,,\pm ,\mp ,\dotplus \! 
\times, \div, \divideontimes, /, \backslash

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \times ,\div ,\divideontimes ,/,\backslash \! 
\cdot, * \ast, \star, \circ, \bullet

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \cdot ,*\ast ,\star ,\circ ,\bullet \! 
\boxplus, \boxminus, \boxtimes, \boxdot

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \boxplus ,\boxminus ,\boxtimes ,\boxdot \! 
\oplus, \ominus, \otimes, \oslash, \odot

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \oplus ,\ominus ,\otimes ,\oslash ,\odot \! 
\circleddash, \circledcirc, \circledast

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \circleddash ,\circledcirc ,\circledast \! 
\bigoplus, \bigotimes, \bigodot

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \bigoplus ,\bigotimes ,\bigodot \! 
Sets  
\{ \}, \O \empty \emptyset, \varnothing

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \{\},\emptyset \emptyset \emptyset ,\varnothing \! 
\in, \notin \not\in, \ni, \not\ni

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \in ,\notin \not \in ,\ni ,\not \ni \! 
\cap, \Cap, \sqcap, \bigcap

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \cap ,\Cap ,\sqcap ,\bigcap \! 
\cup, \Cup, \sqcup, \bigcup, \bigsqcup, \uplus, \biguplus

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \cup ,\Cup ,\sqcup ,\bigcup ,\bigsqcup ,\uplus ,\biguplus \! 
\setminus, \smallsetminus, \times

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \setminus ,\smallsetminus ,\times \! 
\subset, \Subset, \sqsubset

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \subset ,\Subset ,\sqsubset \! 
\supset, \Supset, \sqsupset

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \supset ,\Supset ,\sqsupset \! 
\subseteq, \nsubseteq, \subsetneq, \varsubsetneq, \sqsubseteq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \subseteq ,\nsubseteq ,\subsetneq ,\varsubsetneq ,\sqsubseteq \! 
\supseteq, \nsupseteq, \supsetneq, \varsupsetneq, \sqsupseteq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \supseteq ,\nsupseteq ,\supsetneq ,\varsupsetneq ,\sqsupseteq \! 
\subseteqq, \nsubseteqq, \subsetneqq, \varsubsetneqq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \subseteqq ,\nsubseteqq ,\subsetneqq ,\varsubsetneqq \! 
\supseteqq, \nsupseteqq, \supsetneqq, \varsupsetneqq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \supseteqq ,\nsupseteqq ,\supsetneqq ,\varsupsetneqq \! 
Relations  
=, \ne, \neq, \equiv, \not\equiv

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): =,\neq ,\neq ,\equiv ,\not \equiv \! 
\doteq, \doteqdot, \overset{\underset{\mathrm{def}}{}}{=}, :=

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \doteq ,\doteqdot ,{\overset {{\underset {{\mathrm {def}}}{}}}{=}},:=\! 
\sim, \nsim, \backsim, \thicksim, \simeq, \backsimeq, \eqsim, \cong, \ncong

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sim ,\nsim ,\backsim ,\thicksim ,\simeq ,\backsimeq ,\eqsim ,\cong ,\ncong \! 
\approx, \thickapprox, \approxeq, \asymp, \propto, \varpropto

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \approx ,\thickapprox ,\approxeq ,\asymp ,\propto ,\varpropto \! 
<, \nless, \ll, \not\ll, \lll, \not\lll, \lessdot

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): <,\nless ,\ll ,\not \ll ,\lll ,\not \lll ,\lessdot \! 
>, \ngtr, \gg, \not\gg, \ggg, \not\ggg, \gtrdot

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): >,\ngtr ,\gg ,\not \gg ,\ggg ,\not \ggg ,\gtrdot \! 
\le, \leq, \lneq, \leqq, \nleq, \nleqq, \lneqq, \lvertneqq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \leq ,\leq ,\lneq ,\leqq ,\nleq ,\nleqq ,\lneqq ,\lvertneqq \! 
\ge, \geq, \gneq, \geqq, \ngeq, \ngeqq, \gneqq, \gvertneqq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \geq ,\geq ,\gneq ,\geqq ,\ngeq ,\ngeqq ,\gneqq ,\gvertneqq \! 
\lessgtr, \lesseqgtr, \lesseqqgtr, \gtrless, \gtreqless, \gtreqqless

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lessgtr ,\lesseqgtr ,\lesseqqgtr ,\gtrless ,\gtreqless ,\gtreqqless \! 
\leqslant, \nleqslant, \eqslantless

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \leqslant ,\nleqslant ,\eqslantless \! 
\geqslant, \ngeqslant, \eqslantgtr

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \geqslant ,\ngeqslant ,\eqslantgtr \! 
\lesssim, \lnsim, \lessapprox, \lnapprox

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lesssim ,\lnsim ,\lessapprox ,\lnapprox \! 
\gtrsim, \gnsim, \gtrapprox, \gnapprox

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \gtrsim ,\gnsim ,\gtrapprox ,\gnapprox \, 
\prec, \nprec, \preceq, \npreceq, \precneqq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \prec ,\nprec ,\preceq ,\npreceq ,\precneqq \! 
\succ, \nsucc, \succeq, \nsucceq, \succneqq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \succ ,\nsucc ,\succeq ,\nsucceq ,\succneqq \! 
\preccurlyeq, \curlyeqprec

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \preccurlyeq ,\curlyeqprec \, 
\succcurlyeq, \curlyeqsucc

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \succcurlyeq ,\curlyeqsucc \, 
\precsim, \precnsim, \precapprox, \precnapprox

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \precsim ,\precnsim ,\precapprox ,\precnapprox \, 
\succsim, \succnsim, \succapprox, \succnapprox

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \succsim ,\succnsim ,\succapprox ,\succnapprox \, 
Geometric  
\parallel, \nparallel, \shortparallel, \nshortparallel

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \parallel ,\nparallel ,\shortparallel ,\nshortparallel \! 
\perp, \angle, \sphericalangle, \measuredangle, 45^\circ

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \perp ,\angle ,\sphericalangle ,\measuredangle ,45^{\circ }\! 
\Box, \blacksquare, \diamond, \Diamond \lozenge, \blacklozenge, \bigstar

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Box ,\blacksquare ,\diamond ,\Diamond \lozenge ,\blacklozenge ,\bigstar \! 
\bigcirc, \triangle \bigtriangleup, \bigtriangledown

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \bigcirc ,\triangle \bigtriangleup ,\bigtriangledown \! 
\vartriangle, \triangledown

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \vartriangle ,\triangledown \! 
\blacktriangle, \blacktriangledown, \blacktriangleleft, \blacktriangleright

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \blacktriangle ,\blacktriangledown ,\blacktriangleleft ,\blacktriangleright \! 
Logic  
\forall, \exists, \nexists

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \forall ,\exists ,\nexists \! 
\therefore, \because, \And

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \therefore ,\because ,\And \! 
\or \lor \vee, \curlyvee, \bigvee

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lor \lor \vee ,\curlyvee ,\bigvee \! 
\and \land \wedge, \curlywedge, \bigwedge

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \land \land \wedge ,\curlywedge ,\bigwedge \! 
\bar{q}, \bar{abc}, \overline{q}, \overline{abc},

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\bar {q}},{\bar {abc}},\overline {q},\overline {abc},\!
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lnot \neg ,\not \operatorname {R},\bot ,\top \! 
\vdash \dashv, \vDash, \Vdash, \models

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \vdash \dashv ,\vDash ,\Vdash ,\models \! 
\Vvdash \nvdash \nVdash \nvDash \nVDash

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Vvdash \nvdash \nVdash \nvDash \nVDash \! 
\ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner \, 
Arrows  
\Rrightarrow, \Lleftarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Rrightarrow ,\Lleftarrow \! 
\Rightarrow, \nRightarrow, \Longrightarrow \implies

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Rightarrow ,\nRightarrow ,\Longrightarrow \implies \! 
\Leftarrow, \nLeftarrow, \Longleftarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Leftarrow ,\nLeftarrow ,\Longleftarrow \! 
\Leftrightarrow, \nLeftrightarrow, \Longleftrightarrow \iff

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Leftrightarrow ,\nLeftrightarrow ,\Longleftrightarrow \iff \! 
\Uparrow, \Downarrow, \Updownarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Uparrow ,\Downarrow ,\Updownarrow \! 
\rightarrow \to, \nrightarrow, \longrightarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \rightarrow \to ,\nrightarrow ,\longrightarrow \! 
\leftarrow \gets, \nleftarrow, \longleftarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \leftarrow \gets ,\nleftarrow ,\longleftarrow \! 
\leftrightarrow, \nleftrightarrow, \longleftrightarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \leftrightarrow ,\nleftrightarrow ,\longleftrightarrow \! 
\uparrow, \downarrow, \updownarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \uparrow ,\downarrow ,\updownarrow \! 
\nearrow, \swarrow, \nwarrow, \searrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \nearrow ,\swarrow ,\nwarrow ,\searrow \! 
\mapsto, \longmapsto

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \mapsto ,\longmapsto \! 
\rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \rightleftharpoons \leftrightharpoons

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \rightharpoonup \rightharpoondown \leftharpoonup \leftharpoondown \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \rightleftharpoons \leftrightharpoons \,\! 
\curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \Lsh \upuparrows \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \rightarrowtail \looparrowright

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \curvearrowleft \circlearrowleft \Lsh \upuparrows \rightrightarrows \rightleftarrows \rightarrowtail \looparrowright \,\! 
\curvearrowright \circlearrowright \Rsh \downdownarrows \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \curvearrowright \circlearrowright \Rsh \downdownarrows \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftarrowtail \looparrowleft \,\! 
\hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \multimap \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadleftarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \hookrightarrow \hookleftarrow \multimap \leftrightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow \twoheadrightarrow \twoheadleftarrow \! 
Special  
\amalg \P \S \% \dagger \ddagger \ldots \cdots

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \amalg \P \S \%\dagger \ddagger \ldots \cdots \! 
\smile \frown \wr \triangleleft \triangleright

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \smile \frown \wr \triangleleft \triangleright \! 
\diamondsuit, \heartsuit, \clubsuit, \spadesuit, \Game, \flat, \natural, \sharp

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \diamondsuit ,\heartsuit ,\clubsuit ,\spadesuit ,\Game ,\flat ,\natural ,\sharp \! 
Unsorted (new stuff)  
\diagup \diagdown \centerdot \ltimes \rtimes \leftthreetimes \rightthreetimes

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \diagup \diagdown \centerdot \ltimes \rtimes \leftthreetimes \rightthreetimes \! 
\eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \bumpeq \Bumpeq \doteqdot \risingdotseq \fallingdotseq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \eqcirc \circeq \triangleq \bumpeq \Bumpeq \doteqdot \risingdotseq \fallingdotseq \! 
\intercal \barwedge \veebar \doublebarwedge \between \pitchfork

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \intercal \barwedge \veebar \doublebarwedge \between \pitchfork \! 
\vartriangleleft \ntriangleleft \vartriangleright \ntriangleright

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \vartriangleleft \ntriangleleft \vartriangleright \ntriangleright \! 
\trianglelefteq \ntrianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \ntrianglerighteq

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \trianglelefteq \ntrianglelefteq \trianglerighteq \ntrianglerighteq \! 
For a little more semantics on these symbols, see the brief TeX Cookbook.
Larger expressions
Subscripts, superscripts, integrals
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Superscript  a^2 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a^{2} 
Subscript  a_2 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a_{2} 
Grouping  10^{30} a^{2+2} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): 10^{{30}}a^{{2+2}} 
a_{i,j} b_{f'} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a_{{i,j}}b_{{f'}}  
Combining sub & super without and with horizontal separation  x_2^3 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): x_{2}^{3} 
{x_2}^3 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {x_{2}}^{3}\,\!  
Super super  10^{10^{8}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): 10^{{10^{{8}}}} 
Preceding and/or additional sub & super  \sideset{_1^2}{_3^4}\prod_a^b 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sideset {_{1}^{2}}{_{3}^{4}}\prod _{a}^{b} 
{}_1^2\!\Omega_3^4 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {}_{1}^{2}\!\Omega _{3}^{4}  
Stacking  \overset{\alpha}{\omega} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\overset {\alpha }{\omega }} 
\underset{\alpha}{\omega} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\underset {\alpha }{\omega }}  
\overset{\alpha}{\underset{\gamma}{\omega}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\overset {\alpha }{{\underset {\gamma }{\omega }}}}  
\stackrel{\alpha}{\omega} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\stackrel {\alpha }{\omega }}  
Derivatives  x', y'', f', f'' 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): x',y'',f',f'' 
x^\prime, y^{\prime\prime} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): x^{\prime },y^{{\prime \prime }}  
Derivative dots  \dot{x}, \ddot{x} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\dot {x}},{\ddot {x}} 
Underlines, overlines, vectors  \hat a \ \bar b \ \vec c 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\hat a}\ {\bar b}\ {\vec c} 
\overrightarrow{a b} \ \overleftarrow{c d} \ \widehat{d e f} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \overrightarrow {ab}\ \overleftarrow {cd}\ \widehat {def}  
\overline{g h i} \ \underline{j k l} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \overline {ghi}\ \underline {jkl}  
Arc (workaround)  \overset{\frown} {AB} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\overset {\frown }{AB}} 
Arrows  A \xleftarrow{n+\mu1} B \xrightarrow[T]{n\pm i1} C 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): A{\xleftarrow {n+\mu 1}}B{\xrightarrow[ {T}]{n\pm i1}}C 
Overbraces  \overbrace{ 1+2+\cdots+100 }^{5050} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \overbrace {1+2+\cdots +100}^{{5050}} 
Underbraces  \underbrace{ a+b+\cdots+z }_{26} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \underbrace {a+b+\cdots +z}_{{26}} 
Sum  \sum_{k=1}^N k^2 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sum _{{k=1}}^{N}k^{2} 
Sum (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \textstyle \sum _{{k=1}}^{N}k^{2} 
Sum in a fraction (default \textstyle )

\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\frac {\sum _{{k=1}}^{N}k^{2}}{a}} 
Sum in a fraction (force \displaystyle )

\frac{\displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^N k^2}{a} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\frac {\displaystyle \sum _{{k=1}}^{N}k^{2}}{a}} 
Sum in a fraction (alternative limits style)  \frac{\sum\limits^{^N}_{k=1} k^2}{a} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\frac {\sum \limits _{{k=1}}^{{^{N}}}k^{2}}{a}} 
Product  \prod_{i=1}^N x_i 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \prod _{{i=1}}^{N}x_{i} 
Product (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \prod_{i=1}^N x_i 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \textstyle \prod _{{i=1}}^{N}x_{i} 
Coproduct  \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \coprod _{{i=1}}^{N}x_{i} 
Coproduct (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \coprod_{i=1}^N x_i 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \textstyle \coprod _{{i=1}}^{N}x_{i} 
Limit  \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lim _{{n\to \infty }}x_{n} 
Limit (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \lim_{n \to \infty}x_n 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \textstyle \lim _{{n\to \infty }}x_{n} 
Integral  \int\limits_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int \limits _{{1}}^{{3}}{\frac {e^{3}/x}{x^{2}}}\,dx 
Integral (alternative limits style)  \int_{1}^{3}\frac{e^3/x}{x^2}\, dx 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int _{{1}}^{{3}}{\frac {e^{3}/x}{x^{2}}}\,dx 
Integral (force \textstyle )

\textstyle \int\limits_{N}^{N} e^x\, dx 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \textstyle \int \limits _{{N}}^{{N}}e^{x}\,dx 
Integral (force \textstyle , alternative limits style)

\textstyle \int_{N}^{N} e^x\, dx 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \textstyle \int _{{N}}^{{N}}e^{x}\,dx 
Double integral  \iint\limits_D \, dx\,dy 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \iint \limits _{D}\,dx\,dy 
Triple integral  \iiint\limits_E \, dx\,dy\,dz 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \iiint \limits _{E}\,dx\,dy\,dz 
Quadruple integral  \iiiint\limits_F \, dx\,dy\,dz\,dt 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \iiiint \limits _{F}\,dx\,dy\,dz\,dt 
Line or path integral  \int_{(x,y)\in C} x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int _{{(x,y)\in C}}x^{3}\,dx+4y^{2}\,dy 
Closed line or path integral  \oint_{(x,y)\in C} x^3\, dx + 4y^2\, dy 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \oint _{{(x,y)\in C}}x^{3}\,dx+4y^{2}\,dy 
Intersections  \bigcap_{i=_1}^n E_i 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \bigcap _{{i=_{1}}}^{n}E_{i} 
Unions  \bigcup_{i=_1}^n E_i 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \bigcup _{{i=_{1}}}^{n}E_{i} 
Fractions, matrices, multilines
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Fractions  \frac{2}{4}=0.5 or {2 \over 4}=0.5

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\frac {2}{4}}=0.5 
Small fractions  \tfrac{2}{4} = 0.5

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\tfrac {2}{4}}=0.5 
Large (normal) fractions  \dfrac{2}{4} = 0.5 \qquad \dfrac{2}{c + \dfrac{2}{d + \dfrac{2}{4}}} = a

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\dfrac {2}{4}}=0.5\qquad {\dfrac {2}{c+{\dfrac {2}{d+{\dfrac {2}{4}}}}}}=a 
Large (nested) fractions  \cfrac{2}{c + \cfrac{2}{d + \cfrac{2}{4}}} = a

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\cfrac {2}{c+{\cfrac {2}{d+{\cfrac {2}{4}}}}}}=a 
Cancellations in fractions Note does not work with MathJax 
\cfrac{x}{1 + \cfrac{\cancel{y}}{\cancel{y}}} = \cfrac{x}{2}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\cfrac {x}{1+{\cfrac {{\cancel {y}}}{{\cancel {y}}}}}}={\cfrac {x}{2}} 
Binomial coefficients  \binom{n}{k}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\binom {n}{k}} 
Small binomial coefficients  \tbinom{n}{k}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\tbinom {n}{k}} 
Large (normal) binomial coefficients  \dbinom{n}{k}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\dbinom {n}{k}} 
Matrices  \begin{matrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{matrix}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{matrix}x&y\\z&v\end{matrix}} 
\begin{vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{vmatrix}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{vmatrix}x&y\\z&v\end{vmatrix}}  
\begin{Vmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Vmatrix}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{Vmatrix}x&y\\z&v\end{Vmatrix}}  
\begin{bmatrix}
0 & \cdots & 0 \\
\vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\
0 & \cdots & 0
\end{bmatrix}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{bmatrix}0&\cdots &0\\\vdots &\ddots &\vdots \\0&\cdots &0\end{bmatrix}}  
\begin{Bmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{Bmatrix}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{Bmatrix}x&y\\z&v\end{Bmatrix}}  
\begin{pmatrix}
x & y \\
z & v
\end{pmatrix}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{pmatrix}x&y\\z&v\end{pmatrix}}  
\bigl( \begin{smallmatrix}
a&b\\ c&d
\end{smallmatrix} \bigr)

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\bigl (}{\begin{smallmatrix}a&b\\c&d\end{smallmatrix}}{\bigr )}  
Case distinctions  f(n) =
\begin{cases}
n/2, & \text{if }n\text{ is even} \\
3n+1, & \text{if }n\text{ is odd}
\end{cases}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): f(n)={\begin{cases}n/2,&{\text{if }}n{\text{ is even}}\\3n+1,&{\text{if }}n{\text{ is odd}}\end{cases}} 
Multiline equations  \begin{align}
f(x) & = (a+b)^2 \\
& = a^2+2ab+b^2 \\
\end{align}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{aligned}f(x)&=(a+b)^{2}\\&=a^{2}+2ab+b^{2}\\\end{aligned}} 
\begin{alignat}{2}
f(x) & = (ab)^2 \\
& = a^22ab+b^2 \\
\end{alignat}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{alignedat}{2}f(x)&=(ab)^{2}\\&=a^{2}2ab+b^{2}\\\end{alignedat}}  
Multiline equations (must define number of columns used ({lcr}) (should not be used unless needed)  \begin{array}{lcl}
z & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z
\end{array}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{array}{lcl}z&=&a\\f(x,y,z)&=&x+y+z\end{array}} 
Multiline equations (more)  \begin{array}{lcr}
z & = & a \\
f(x,y,z) & = & x + y + z
\end{array}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{array}{lcr}z&=&a\\f(x,y,z)&=&x+y+z\end{array}} 
Breaking up a long expression so that it wraps when necessary, at the expense of destroying correct spacing  f(x) =
\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n =
a_0+a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): f(x)=\sum _{{n=0}}^{\infty }a_{n}x^{n}=a_{0}+a_{1}x+a_{2}x^{2}+\cdots 
Simultaneous equations  \begin{cases}
3x + 5y + z \\
7x  2y + 4z \\
6x + 3y + 2z
\end{cases}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{cases}3x+5y+z\\7x2y+4z\\6x+3y+2z\end{cases}} 
Arrays  \begin{array}{ccc} a & b & S \\
\hline
0&0&1\\
0&1&1\\
1&0&1\\
1&1&0\\
\end{array}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{array}{ccc}a&b&S\\\hline 0&0&1\\0&1&1\\1&0&1\\1&1&0\\\end{array}} 
Parenthesizing big expressions, brackets, bars
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Bad  ( \frac{1}{2} )

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): ({\frac {1}{2}}) 
Good  \left ( \frac{1}{2} \right )

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left({\frac {1}{2}}\right) 
You can use various delimiters with \left and \right:
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Parentheses  \left ( \frac{a}{b} \right )

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left({\frac {a}{b}}\right) 
Brackets  \left [ \frac{a}{b} \right ] \quad \left \lbrack \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrack

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left[{\frac {a}{b}}\right]\quad \left\lbrack {\frac {a}{b}}\right\rbrack 
Braces  \left \{ \frac{a}{b} \right \} \quad \left \lbrace \frac{a}{b} \right \rbrace

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left\{{\frac {a}{b}}\right\}\quad \left\lbrace {\frac {a}{b}}\right\rbrace 
Angle brackets  \left \langle \frac{a}{b} \right \rangle

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left\langle {\frac {a}{b}}\right\rangle 
Bars and double bars  \left  \frac{a}{b} \right \vert \quad \left \Vert \frac{c}{d} \right \

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left{\frac {a}{b}}\right\vert \quad \left\Vert {\frac {c}{d}}\right\ 
Floor and ceiling functions:  \left \lfloor \frac{a}{b} \right \rfloor \quad \left \lceil \frac{c}{d} \right \rceil

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left\lfloor {\frac {a}{b}}\right\rfloor \quad \left\lceil {\frac {c}{d}}\right\rceil 
Slashes and backslashes  \left / \frac{a}{b} \right \backslash

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left/{\frac {a}{b}}\right\backslash 
Up, down, and updown arrows  \left \uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \downarrow \quad \left \Uparrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Downarrow \quad \left \updownarrow \frac{a}{b} \right \Updownarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left\uparrow {\frac {a}{b}}\right\downarrow \quad \left\Uparrow {\frac {a}{b}}\right\Downarrow \quad \left\updownarrow {\frac {a}{b}}\right\Updownarrow 
Delimiters can be mixed, as long as \left and \right match 
\left [ 0,1 \right ) \left \langle \psi \right 

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left[0,1\right)
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left\langle \psi \right 
Use \left. and \right. if you do not want a delimiter to appear 
\left . \frac{A}{B} \right \} \to X

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \left.{\frac {A}{B}}\right\}\to X 
Size of the delimiters (add "l" or "r" to indicate the side for proper spacing)  ( \bigl( \Bigl( \biggl( \Biggl( \dots \Biggr] \biggr] \Bigr] \bigr] ]

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): ({\bigl (}{\Bigl (}{\biggl (}{\Biggl (}\dots {\Biggr ]}{\biggr ]}{\Bigr ]}{\bigr ]}] 
\{ \bigl\{ \Bigl\{ \biggl\{ \Biggl\{ \dots \Biggr\rangle \biggr\rangle \Bigr\rangle \bigr\rangle \rangle

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \{{\bigl \{}{\Bigl \{}{\biggl \{}{\Biggl \{}\dots {\Biggr \rangle }{\biggr \rangle }{\Bigr \rangle }{\bigr \rangle }\rangle  
\ \big\ \Big\ \bigg\ \Bigg\ \dots \Bigg \bigg \Big \big 

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \{\big \}{\Big \}{\bigg \}{\Bigg \}\dots {\Bigg }{\bigg }{\Big }{\big }  
\lfloor \bigl\lfloor \Bigl\lfloor \biggl\lfloor \Biggl\lfloor \dots \Biggr\rceil \biggr\rceil \Bigr\rceil \bigr\rceil \ceil

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lfloor {\bigl \lfloor }{\Bigl \lfloor }{\biggl \lfloor }{\Biggl \lfloor }\dots {\Biggr \rceil }{\biggr \rceil }{\Bigr \rceil }{\bigr \rceil }\rceil  
\uparrow \big\uparrow \Big\uparrow \bigg\uparrow \Bigg\uparrow \dots \Bigg\Downarrow \bigg\Downarrow \Big\Downarrow \big\Downarrow \Downarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \uparrow {\big \uparrow }{\Big \uparrow }{\bigg \uparrow }{\Bigg \uparrow }\dots {\Bigg \Downarrow }{\bigg \Downarrow }{\Big \Downarrow }{\big \Downarrow }\Downarrow  
\updownarrow \big\updownarrow \Big\updownarrow \bigg\updownarrow \Bigg\updownarrow \dots \Bigg\Updownarrow \bigg\Updownarrow \Big\Updownarrow \big\Updownarrow \Updownarrow

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \updownarrow {\big \updownarrow }{\Big \updownarrow }{\bigg \updownarrow }{\Bigg \updownarrow }\dots {\Bigg \Updownarrow }{\bigg \Updownarrow }{\Big \Updownarrow }{\big \Updownarrow }\Updownarrow  
/ \big/ \Big/ \bigg/ \Bigg/ \dots \Bigg\backslash \bigg\backslash \Big\backslash \big\backslash \backslash

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): /{\big /}{\Big /}{\bigg /}{\Bigg /}\dots {\Bigg \backslash }{\bigg \backslash }{\Big \backslash }{\big \backslash }\backslash 
Equation numbering
The templates Template:Tl and Template:Tl can be used to number equations. The template Template:Tl can be used to refer to a numbered equation from surrounding text. For example, the following syntax:
{{NumBlk:<math>x^2 + y^2 + z^2 = 1 \,</math>{{EquationRef1}}}}
produces the following result (note the equation number in the right margin):
Later on, the text can refer to this equation by its number using syntax like this:
As seen in equation ({{EquationNote1}}), blah blah blah...
The result looks like this:
 As seen in equation (Template:EquationNote), blah blah blah...
Note that the equation number produced by Template:Tl is a link that the user can click to go immediately to the cited equation.
Alphabets and typefaces
Template:See also Texvc cannot render arbitrary Unicode characters. Those it can handle can be entered by the expressions below. For others, such as Cyrillic, they can be entered as Unicode or HTML entities in running text, but cannot be used in displayed formulas.
Greek alphabet  

\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta \Eta \Theta

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \Gamma \Delta \mathrm{E} \mathrm{Z} \mathrm{H} \Theta \! 
\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Pi \Rho

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \mathrm{I} \mathrm{K} \Lambda \mathrm{M} \mathrm{N} \Xi \Pi \mathrm{P} \! 
\Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \Sigma \mathrm{T} \Upsilon \Phi \mathrm{X} \Psi \Omega \! 
\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta \! 
\iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \pi \rho

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \pi \rho \! 
\sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega \! 
\varepsilon \digamma \varkappa \varpi

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \varepsilon \digamma \varkappa \varpi \! 
\varrho \varsigma \vartheta \varphi

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \varrho \varsigma \vartheta \varphi \! 
Hebrew symbols  
\aleph \beth \gimel \daleth

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \aleph \beth \gimel \daleth \! 
Blackboard bold/scripts  
\mathbb{ABCDEFGHI}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbb {ABCDEFGHI}}\! 
\mathbb{JKLMNOPQR}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbb {JKLMNOPQR}}\! 
\mathbb{STUVWXYZ}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbb {STUVWXYZ}}\! 
Boldface  
\mathbf{ABCDEFGHI}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbf {ABCDEFGHI}}\! 
\mathbf{JKLMNOPQR}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbf {JKLMNOPQR}}\! 
\mathbf{STUVWXYZ}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbf {STUVWXYZ}}\! 
\mathbf{abcdefghijklm}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbf {abcdefghijklm}}\! 
\mathbf{nopqrstuvwxyz}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbf {nopqrstuvwxyz}}\! 
\mathbf{0123456789}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathbf {0123456789}}\! 
Boldface (Greek)  
\boldsymbol{\Alpha\Beta\Gamma\Delta\Epsilon\Zeta\Eta\Theta}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \Gamma \Delta \mathrm{E} \mathrm{Z} \mathrm{H} \Theta }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\Iota\Kappa\Lambda\Mu\Nu\Xi\Pi\Rho}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\mathrm{I} \mathrm{K} \Lambda \mathrm{M} \mathrm{N} \Xi \Pi \mathrm{P} }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\Sigma\Tau\Upsilon\Phi\Chi\Psi\Omega}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\Sigma \mathrm{T} \Upsilon \Phi \mathrm{X} \Psi \Omega }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\alpha\beta\gamma\delta\epsilon\zeta\eta\theta}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \zeta \eta \theta }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\iota\kappa\lambda\mu\nu\xi\pi\rho}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \pi \rho }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\sigma\tau\upsilon\phi\chi\psi\omega}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\sigma \tau \upsilon \phi \chi \psi \omega }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\varepsilon\digamma\varkappa\varpi}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\varepsilon \digamma \varkappa \varpi }}\! 
\boldsymbol{\varrho\varsigma\vartheta\varphi}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\boldsymbol {\varrho \varsigma \vartheta \varphi }}\! 
Italics (default for Latin alphabet)  
\mathit{0123456789}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathit {0123456789}}\! 
Greek italics (default for lowercase Greek)  
\mathit{\Alpha\Beta\Gamma\Delta\Epsilon\Zeta\Eta\Theta}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathit {\mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \Gamma \Delta \mathrm{E} \mathrm{Z} \mathrm{H} \Theta }}\! 
\mathit{\Iota\Kappa\Lambda\Mu\Nu\Xi\Pi\Rho}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathit {\mathrm{I} \mathrm{K} \Lambda \mathrm{M} \mathrm{N} \Xi \Pi \mathrm{P} }}\! 
\mathit{\Sigma\Tau\Upsilon\Phi\Chi\Psi\Omega}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathit {\Sigma \mathrm{T} \Upsilon \Phi \mathrm{X} \Psi \Omega }}\! 
Roman typeface  
\mathrm{ABCDEFGHI}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathrm {ABCDEFGHI}}\! 
\mathrm{JKLMNOPQR}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathrm {JKLMNOPQR}}\! 
\mathrm{STUVWXYZ}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathrm {STUVWXYZ}}\! 
\mathrm{abcdefghijklm}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathrm {abcdefghijklm}}\! 
\mathrm{nopqrstuvwxyz}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathrm {nopqrstuvwxyz}}\! 
\mathrm{0123456789}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathrm {0123456789}}\! 
Sans serif  
\mathsf{ABCDEFGHI}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {ABCDEFGHI}}\! 
\mathsf{JKLMNOPQR}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {JKLMNOPQR}}\! 
\mathsf{STUVWXYZ}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {STUVWXYZ}}\! 
\mathsf{abcdefghijklm}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {abcdefghijklm}}\! 
\mathsf{nopqrstuvwxyz}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {nopqrstuvwxyz}}\! 
\mathsf{0123456789}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {0123456789}}\! 
Sans serif Greek (capital only)  
\mathsf{\Alpha \Beta \Gamma \Delta \Epsilon \Zeta \Eta \Theta}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {\mathrm{A} \mathrm{B} \Gamma \Delta \mathrm{E} \mathrm{Z} \mathrm{H} \Theta }}\! 
\mathsf{\Iota \Kappa \Lambda \Mu \Nu \Xi \Pi \Rho}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {\mathrm{I} \mathrm{K} \Lambda \mathrm{M} \mathrm{N} \Xi \Pi \mathrm{P} }}\! 
\mathsf{\Sigma \Tau \Upsilon \Phi \Chi \Psi \Omega}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathsf {\Sigma \mathrm{T} \Upsilon \Phi \mathrm{X} \Psi \Omega }}\! 
Calligraphy/script  
\mathcal{ABCDEFGHI}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathcal {ABCDEFGHI}}\! 
\mathcal{JKLMNOPQR}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathcal {JKLMNOPQR}}\! 
\mathcal{STUVWXYZ}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathcal {STUVWXYZ}}\! 
Fraktur typeface  
\mathfrak{ABCDEFGHI}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathfrak {ABCDEFGHI}}\! 
\mathfrak{JKLMNOPQR}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathfrak {JKLMNOPQR}}\! 
\mathfrak{STUVWXYZ}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathfrak {STUVWXYZ}}\! 
\mathfrak{abcdefghijklm}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathfrak {abcdefghijklm}}\! 
\mathfrak{nopqrstuvwxyz}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathfrak {nopqrstuvwxyz}}\! 
\mathfrak{0123456789}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathfrak {0123456789}}\! 
Small scriptstyle text  
{\scriptstyle\text{abcdefghijklm}}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\scriptstyle {\text{abcdefghijklm}}} 
Mixed text faces
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

Italicised characters (spaces are ignored)  x y z

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): xyz 
Nonitalicised characters  \text{x y z}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\text{x y z}} 
Mixed italics (bad)  \text{if} n \text{is even}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\text{if}}n{\text{is even}} 
Mixed italics (good)  \text{if }n\text{ is even}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\text{if }}n{\text{ is even}} 
Mixed italics (alternative: ~ or "\ " forces a space)  \text{if}~n\ \text{is even}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\text{if}}~n\ {\text{is even}} 
Color
Equations can use color with the \color
command. The default Texvc renderer and the MathJax renderers have different syntaxes to support both use {\color{Blue}{text}}
. For example
{\color{Blue}{x^2}}+{\color{Orange}{2x}}{\color{LimeGreen}{1}}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\color {Blue}{x^{2}}}+{\color {Orange}{2x}}{\color {LimeGreen}{1}}
x_{1,2}=\frac{{\color{Blue}{b}}\pm\sqrt{\color{Red}{b^24ac}}}{\color{Green}{2a}}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): x_{{1,2}}={\frac {{\color {Blue}{b}}\pm {\sqrt {\color {Red}{b^{2}4ac}}}}{\color {Green}{2a}}}
There are several alternate notations styles
{\color{Blue}x^2}+{\color{Orange}2x}{\color{LimeGreen}1}
works with both texvc and MathJax Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\color {Blue}x^{2}}+{\color {Orange}2x}{\color {LimeGreen}1}
\color{Blue}x^2\color{Black}+\color{Orange}2x\color{Black}\color{LimeGreen}1
works with both texvc and MathJax Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Blue}x^{2}\color {Black}+\color {Orange}2x\color {Black}\color {LimeGreen}1
\color{Blue}{x^2}+\color{Orange}{2x}\color{LimeGreen}{1}
only works with MathJax Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Blue}{x^{2}}+\color {Orange}{2x}\color {LimeGreen}{1}
Some color names are predeclared according to the following table, you can use them directly for the rendering of formulas (or for declaring the intended color of the page background).
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Apricot}{{\text{Apricot}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}\color {Aquamarine}{{\text{Aquamarine}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Bittersweet}{{\text{Bittersweet}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Black}{{\text{Black}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Blue}{{\text{Blue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {BlueGreen}{{\text{BlueGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {BlueViolet}{{\text{BlueViolet}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {BrickRed}{{\text{BrickRed}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Brown}{{\text{Brown}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {BurntOrange}{{\text{BurntOrange}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {CadetBlue}{{\text{CadetBlue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {CarnationPink}{{\text{CarnationPink}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Cerulean}{{\text{Cerulean}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {CornflowerBlue}{{\text{CornflowerBlue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}\color {Cyan}{{\text{Cyan}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Dandelion}{{\text{Dandelion}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {DarkOrchid}{{\text{DarkOrchid}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Emerald}{{\text{Emerald}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {ForestGreen}{{\text{ForestGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Fuchsia}{{\text{Fuchsia}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Goldenrod}{{\text{Goldenrod}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Gray}{{\text{Gray}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Green}{{\text{Green}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}\color {GreenYellow}{{\text{GreenYellow}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {JungleGreen}{{\text{JungleGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}\color {Lavender}{{\text{Lavender}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {LimeGreen}{{\text{LimeGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Magenta}{{\text{Magenta}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Mahogany}{{\text{Mahogany}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Maroon}{{\text{Maroon}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Melon}{{\text{Melon}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {MidnightBlue}{{\text{MidnightBlue}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Mulberry}{{\text{Mulberry}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {NavyBlue}{{\text{NavyBlue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {OliveGreen}{{\text{OliveGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Orange}{{\text{Orange}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {OrangeRed}{{\text{OrangeRed}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Orchid}{{\text{Orchid}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Peach}{{\text{Peach}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Periwinkle}{{\text{Periwinkle}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {PineGreen}{{\text{PineGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Plum}{{\text{Plum}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {ProcessBlue}{{\text{ProcessBlue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Purple}{{\text{Purple}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {RawSienna}{{\text{RawSienna}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Red}{{\text{Red}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {RedOrange}{{\text{RedOrange}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {RedViolet}{{\text{RedViolet}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Rhodamine}{{\text{Rhodamine}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {RoyalBlue}{{\text{RoyalBlue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {RoyalPurple}{{\text{RoyalPurple}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {RubineRed}{{\text{RubineRed}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Salmon}{{\text{Salmon}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {SeaGreen}{{\text{SeaGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Sepia}{{\text{Sepia}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {SkyBlue}{{\text{SkyBlue}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {SpringGreen}{{\text{SpringGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Tan}{{\text{Tan}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {TealBlue}{{\text{TealBlue}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}\color {Thistle}{{\text{Thistle}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Turquoise}{{\text{Turquoise}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {Violet}{{\text{Violet}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {VioletRed}{{\text{VioletRed}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}{\color {White}{{\text{White}}}} 
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {WildStrawberry}{{\text{WildStrawberry}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}\color {Yellow}{{\text{Yellow}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {YellowGreen}{{\text{YellowGreen}}}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \color {YellowOrange}{{\text{YellowOrange}}} 
Note that color should not be used as the only way to identify something, because it will become meaningless on blackandwhite media or for colorblind people. See Wikipedia:Manual of Style (accessibility)#Color.
Latex does not have a command for setting the background color. The most effective of setting a background color is by setting a CSS styling rules for a table cell
{ class="wikitable"   style="background: gray"  <math>\pagecolor{Gray}x^2</math>  style="background: Goldenrod"  <math>\pagecolor{Goldenrod}y^3</math> }
Rendered as
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Gray}x^{2}  Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \pagecolor {Goldenrod}y^{3} 
The \pagecolor{Goldenrod}
command is necessary for the Texvc renderer to use the correct antialiasing around the edges of the semitransparent images.
Custom colours can be defined using
\definecolor{myorange}{RGB}{255,165,100}\color{myorange}e^{i \pi}\color{Black} + 1 = 0
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \definecolor {myorange}{RGB}{255,165,100}\color {myorange}e^{{i\pi }}\color {Black}+1=0
Formatting issues
Spacing
Note that Template:TeX handles most spacing automatically, but you may sometimes want manual control.
Feature  Syntax  How it looks rendered 

double quad space  a \qquad b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\qquad b 
quad space  a \quad b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\quad b 
text space  a\ b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\ b 
text space without PNG conversion  a \mbox{ } b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a{\mbox{ }}b 
large space  a\;b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\;b 
medium space  a\<b

[not supported] 
small space  a\,b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\,b 
tiny space (use for multiplication of factors)  ab

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): ab 
no space (use for multiletter variables)  \mathit{ab}

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\mathit {ab}} 
small negative space  a\!b

Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): a\!b 
Automatic spacing may be broken in very long expressions (because they produce an overfull hbox in Template:TeX):
0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): 0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots
This can be remedied by putting a pair of braces { } around the whole expression:
{0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots}
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {0+1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15+16+17+18+19+20+\cdots }
Alignment with normal text flow
Due to the default CSS
img.tex { verticalalign: middle; }
an inline expression like Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int _{{N}}^{{N}}e^{x}\,dx should look good.
If you need to align it otherwise, use <math style="verticalalign:100%;">...</math>
and play with the verticalalign
argument until you get it right; however, how it looks may depend on the browser and the browser settings.
Also note that if you rely on this workaround, if/when the rendering on the server gets fixed in future releases, as a result of this extra manual offset your formulae will suddenly be aligned incorrectly. So use it sparingly, if at all.
Commutative diagrams
To make a commutative diagram, there are three steps:
 write the diagram in TeX
 convert to SVG
 upload the file to Wikimedia Commons
Diagrams in Template:TeX
Xypic (online manual) is the most powerful and generalpurpose diagram package in TeX. Diagrams created using it can be found at Commons: Category:Xypic diagrams.
Simpler packages include:
The following is a template for Xypic, together with a hack to increase the margins in dvips, so that the diagram is not truncated by overeager cropping (suggested in TUGboat: TUGboat, Volume 17 1996, No. 3):
\documentclass{amsart}
\usepackage[all, ps, dvips]{xy} % Loading the XYPic package
% Using postscript driver for smoother curves
\usepackage{color} % For invisible frame
\begin{document}
\thispagestyle{empty} % No page numbers
\SelectTips{eu}{} % Euler arrowheads (tips)
\setlength{\fboxsep}{0pt} % Frame box margin
{\color{white}\framebox{{\color{black}$$ % Frame for margin
\xymatrix{
%%% Diagram goes here %%%
}
$$}}} % end math, end frame
\end{document}
Convert to SVG
Once you have produced your diagram in LaTeX (or TeX), you can convert it to an SVG file using the following sequence of commands:
pdflatex file.tex
pdfcrop clip file.pdf tmp.pdf
pdf2svg tmp.pdf file.svg
rm tmp.pdf
The pdfcrop and pdf2svg utilities are needed for this procedure. You can alternatively use pdf2svg from PDFTron for the last step.
If you do not have pdfTeX (which is unlikely) you can use the following commands to replace the first step (TeX → PDF):
latex file.tex
dvipdfm file.dvi
In general, you will not be able to get anywhere with diagrams without Template:TeX and Ghostscript, and the inkscape
program is a useful tool for creating or modifying your diagrams by hand. There is also a utility pstoedit
which supports direct conversion from Postscript files to many vector graphics formats, but it requires a nonfree plugin to convert to SVG, and regardless of the format, this editor has not been successful in using it to convert diagrams with diagonal arrows from TeXcreated files.
These programs are:
 a working Template:TeX distribution, such as TeX Live
 Ghostscript
 pstoedit
 Inkscape
Upload the file
As the diagram is your own work, upload it to Wikimedia Commons, so that all projects (notably, all languages) can use it without having to copy it to their language's Wiki. (If you've previously uploaded a file to somewhere other than Commons, to Commons.)
 Check size
 Before uploading, check that the default size of the image is neither too large nor too small by opening in an SVG application and viewing at default size (100% scaling), otherwise adjust the
y
option todvips
.  Name
 Make sure the file has a meaningful name.
 Upload
 Login to Wikimedia Commons, then upload the file; for the Summary, give a brief description.
Now go to the image page and add a description, including the source code, using this template:
{{Information description = {{en1= Description [[:en:Link to WP pagetopic]] }} source = {{own}}, created as per: [[:en:Help:Displaying a formula#Commutative diagrams]]; source code below. date = The Creation Date, like 19991231 author = [[User:YourUserNameYour Real Name]] permission = {{selfPDself (or other license) author = [[User:YourUserNameYour Real Name]]}} }}
==TeX source== <source lang=latex> % TeX source here </source> [[Category:Commutative diagrams]] [[Category:Xypic diagrams]] [[Category:Images with LaTeX source code]]
 Source code
 Include the source code in the image page, in the Source section of the
{{Information}}
template, so that the diagram can be edited in future.  Include the complete
.tex
file, not just the fragment, so future editors do not need to reconstruct a compilable file.  You may optionally make the source code section collapsible, using the
{{cot}}
/{{cob}}
templates.  (Don't include it in the Summary section, which is just supposed to be a summary.)
 License
 The most common license for commutative diagrams is
PDself
; some usePDineligible
, especially for simple diagrams, or other licenses. Please do not use the GFDL, as it requires the entire text of the GFDL to be attached to any document that uses the diagram.  Description
 If possible, link to a Wikipedia page relevant to the diagram. (The
1=
is necessary if you use nest templates within the description, and harmless otherwise.)  Category
 Include
[[Category:Commutative diagrams]]
, so that it appears in commons:Category:Commutative diagrams. There are also subcategories, which you may choose to use.  Include image
 Now include the image on the original page via
[[File:Diagram.svg]]
Examples
A sample conforming diagram is commons:Image:PSUPU.svg.
Unimplemented elements and workarounds
\oiint
and \oiiint
Elements which are not yet implemented are \oiint
, a twofold integral \iint
Template:Nowrap with a circular curve through the centre of the two integrals, and similarly \oiiint
, a circular curve through three integrals. In contrast, \oint
Template:Nowrap exists for the single dimension (integration over a curved line within a plane or any space with higher dimension).
These elements appear in many contexts: \oiint
denotes a surface integral over the closed 2d boundary of a 3d region (which occurs in much of 3d vector calculus and physical applications – like Maxwell's equations), likewise \oiiint
denotes integration over the closed 3d boundary (surface volume) of a 4d region, and they would be strong candidates for the next Template:TeX version. As such there are a lot of workarounds in the present version.
\oiint
and\oiiint
using currently implemented symbols\oiint
looks like: Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \iint \limits _{{S}}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\subset \!\supset {\mathbf D}\cdot {\mathrm {d}}{\mathbf A}
, which uses
\iint
along with\subset
and\supset
(overdrawn after backspacing):
\iint\limits_{S}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\subset\!\supset \mathbf D \cdot \mathrm{d}\mathbf A
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int \!\!\!\!\int _{{\partial V}}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\bigcirc \,\,{\mathbf D}\cdot {\mathrm {d}}{\mathbf A}
, which uses
\int
twice (with some backward kerning) along with\bigcirc
(also overdrawn after backpacing) to produce a more consistent circle:
\int\!\!\!\!\int_{\partial V}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\bigcirc\,\,\mathbf D\cdot\mathrm{d}\mathbf A
\oiiint
(should also be preferably more tightly kerned) looks more or less like: Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int \!\!\!\!\!\int \!\!\!\!\!\int _{{\partial V}}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\subset \!\supset {\mathbf D}\cdot {\mathrm {d}}{\mathbf A} which uses three \int symbols (with more backward kerning) with \subset and \supset (overdrawn after backspacing):
\int\!\!\!\!\!\int\!\!\!\!\!\int_{\partial V}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\subset\!\supset \mathbf D\;\cdot\mathrm{d}\mathbf A
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int \!\!\!\!\!\int \!\!\!\!\!\int _{{\partial V}}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\bigcirc \,\,{\mathbf D}\;\cdot {\mathrm {d}}{\mathbf A}
, which uses three
\int
symbols (with more backward kerning) along with\bigcirc
(also overdrawn after backspacing):
\int\!\!\!\!\!\int\!\!\!\!\!\int_{\partial V}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\;\;\;\bigcirc\,\,\mathbf D\;\cdot\mathrm{d}\mathbf A
 Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \iint \limits _{{S}}\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\!\subset \!\supset {\mathbf D}\cdot {\mathrm {d}}{\mathbf A}
, which uses
However, since no standardisation exists as yet, any workaround like this (which uses many \!
symbols for backspacing) should be avoided, if possible. See below for a possibility using PNG image enforcement.
Note that \iint
(the double integral) and \iiint
(the triple integral) are still not kerned as they should preferably be, and are currently rendered as if they were successive \int
symbols ; this is not a major problem for reading the formulas, even if the integral symbols before the last one do not have bounds, so it's best to avoid backspacing "hacks" as they may be inconsistent with a possible future better implementation of integrals symbols (with more precisely computed kerning positions).
\oiint
and \oiiint
as PNG images
These symbols are available as PNG images which are also integrated into two templates, Template:Tl and Template:Tl, which take care of the formatting around the symbols.
The templates have three parameters:
 preintegral
 the text or formula immediately before the integral
 intsubscpt
 the subscript below the integral
 integrand
 the text or formula immediately after the integral
Examples
 Stokes' theorem:
{{oiint  intsubscpt = <math>{\scriptstyle S}</math>  integrand=<math>( \nabla \times \bold{F} ) \cdot {\rm d}\bold{S} = \oint_{\partial S} \bold{F} \cdot {\rm d}\boldsymbol{\ell} </math> }}
 Ampère's law + correction:
{{oiint  preintegral=<math>\oint_C \bold{B} \cdot {\rm d} \boldsymbol{\ell} = \mu_0 </math>  intsubscpt = <math>{\scriptstyle S}</math>  integrand = <math>\left ( \bold{J} + \epsilon_0\frac{\partial \bold{E}}{\partial t} \right ) \cdot {\rm d}\bold{S}</math> }}
 Continuity of 4momentum flux (in general relativity):^{[1]}
{{oiiint  preintegral=<math>\bold{P} = </math>  intsubscpt = <math>{\scriptstyle \partial \Omega}</math>  integrand = <math>\bold{T} \cdot {\rm d}^3\boldsymbol{\Sigma} = 0</math> }}
Oriented \oiint
and \oiiint
as PNG images
Some variants of \oiint
and \oiiint
have arrows on them to indicate the sense of integration, such as a line integral around a closed curve in the clockwise sense, and higher dimensional analogues. These are not implemented in Template:TEX on Wikipedia either, although the template Template:Tl is available  see link for details.
\overarc
\overarc
is not yet implemented to display the arc notation. However, there exists a workaround: use \overset{\frown}{AB}
, which gives
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\overset {\frown }{AB}}
Examples of implemented Template:TeX formulas
Quadratic polynomial
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): ax^{2}+bx+c=0
<math>ax^2 + bx + c = 0</math>
Quadratic formula
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): x={b\pm {\sqrt {b^{2}4ac}} \over 2a}
<math>x={b\pm\sqrt{b^24ac} \over 2a}</math>
Tall parentheses and fractions
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): 2=\left({\frac {\left(3x\right)\times 2}{3x}}\right)
<math>2 = \left(
\frac{\left(3x\right) \times 2}{3x}
\right)</math>
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): S_{{{\text{new}}}}=S_{{{\text{old}}}}{\frac {\left(5T\right)^{2}}{2}}
<math>S_{\text{new}} = S_{\text{old}}  \frac{ \left( 5T \right) ^2} {2}</math>
Integrals
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \int _{a}^{x}\!\!\!\int _{a}^{s}f(y)\,dy\,ds=\int _{a}^{x}f(y)(xy)\,dy
<math>\int_a^x \!\!\!\int_a^s f(y)\,dy\,ds
= \int_a^x f(y)(xy)\,dy</math>
Matrices and determinants
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \det({\mathsf {A}}\lambda {\mathsf {I}})=0
<math>\det(\mathsf{A}\lambda\mathsf{I}) = 0</math>
Summation
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sum _{{i=0}}^{{n1}}i
<math>\sum_{i=0}^{n1} i</math>
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \sum _{{m=1}}^{\infty }\sum _{{n=1}}^{\infty }{\frac {m^{2}\,n}{3^{m}\left(m\,3^{n}+n\,3^{m}\right)}}
<math>\sum_{m=1}^\infty\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{m^2\,n}
{3^m\left(m\,3^n+n\,3^m\right)}</math>
Differential equation
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): u''+p(x)u'+q(x)u=f(x),\quad x>a
<math>u'' + p(x)u' + q(x)u=f(x),\quad x>a</math>
Complex numbers
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\bar {z}}=z,({\bar {z}})^{n}=z^{n},\arg(z^{n})=n\arg(z)
<math>\bar{z} = z,
(\bar{z})^n = z^n,
\arg(z^n) = n \arg(z)</math>
Limits
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \lim _{{z\rightarrow z_{0}}}f(z)=f(z_{0})
<math>\lim_{z\rightarrow z_0} f(z)=f(z_0)</math>
Integral equation
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \phi _{n}(\kappa )={\frac {1}{4\pi ^{2}\kappa ^{2}}}\int _{0}^{\infty }{\frac {\sin(\kappa R)}{\kappa R}}{\frac {\partial }{\partial R}}\left[R^{2}{\frac {\partial D_{n}(R)}{\partial R}}\right]\,dR
<math>\phi_n(\kappa) =
\frac{1}{4\pi^2\kappa^2} \int_0^\infty
\frac{\sin(\kappa R)}{\kappa R}
\frac{\partial}{\partial R}
\left[R^2\frac{\partial D_n(R)}{\partial R}\right]\,dR</math>
Example
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): \phi _{n}(\kappa )=0.033C_{n}^{2}\kappa ^{{11/3}},\quad {\frac {1}{L_{0}}}\ll \kappa \ll {\frac {1}{l_{0}}}
<math>\phi_n(\kappa) =
0.033C_n^2\kappa^{11/3},\quad
\frac{1}{L_0}\ll\kappa\ll\frac{1}{l_0}</math>
Continuation and cases
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): f(x)={\begin{cases}1&1\leq x<0\\{\frac {1}{2}}&x=0\\1x^{2}&{\text{otherwise}}\end{cases}}
<math>
f(x) =
\begin{cases}
1 & 1 \le x < 0 \\
\frac{1}{2} & x = 0 \\
1  x^2 & \text{otherwise}
\end{cases}
</math>
Prefixed subscript
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {}_{p}F_{q}(a_{1},\dots ,a_{p};c_{1},\dots ,c_{q};z)=\sum _{{n=0}}^{\infty }{\frac {(a_{1})_{n}\cdots (a_{p})_{n}}{(c_{1})_{n}\cdots (c_{q})_{n}}}{\frac {z^{n}}{n!}}
<math>{}_pF_q(a_1,\dots,a_p;c_1,\dots,c_q;z)
= \sum_{n=0}^\infty
\frac{(a_1)_n\cdots(a_p)_n}{(c_1)_n\cdots(c_q)_n}
\frac{z^n}{n!}</math>
Fraction and small fraction
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\frac {a}{b}}\ {\tfrac {a}{b}}
<math>\frac{a}{b}\ \tfrac{a}{b}</math>
Area of a quadrilateral
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): S=dD\,\sin \alpha \!
<math>S=dD\,\sin\alpha\!</math>
Volume of a spherestand
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): V={\frac 16}\pi h\left[3\left(r_{1}^{2}+r_{2}^{2}\right)+h^{2}\right]
<math>V=\frac16\pi h\left[3\left(r_1^2+r_2^2\right)+h^2\right]</math>
Multiple equations
Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\begin{aligned}u&={\tfrac {1}{{\sqrt {2}}}}(x+y)\qquad &x&={\tfrac {1}{{\sqrt {2}}}}(u+v)\\v&={\tfrac {1}{{\sqrt {2}}}}(xy)\qquad &y&={\tfrac {1}{{\sqrt {2}}}}(uv)\end{aligned}}
<math>\begin{align}
u & = \tfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(x+y) \qquad & x &= \tfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(u+v) \\
v & = \tfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(xy) \qquad & y &= \tfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(uv)
\end{align}</math>
See also
 Typesetting of mathematical formulae
 Proposed m:Music markup and Help:Musical symbols
 Table of mathematical symbols
 mw:Extension:Blahtex, or blahtex: a LaTeX to MathML converter for Wikipedia
 commons:Category:Images which should use TeX
References
External links
 A LaTeX tutorial
 Template:Citation. A paper introducing TeX — see page 39 onwards for a good introduction to the maths side of things.
 Template:Citation. A paper introducing LaTeX — skip to page 49 for the math section. See page 63 for a complete reference list of symbols included in LaTeX and AMSLaTeX.
 The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List—symbols not found here may be documented there.
 Long list of many symbols
 short list of common symbols
 The esint package for closed double integrals
 The esint package for closed double integrals
 cancel package
 AMSLaTeX guide.
 A set of public domain fixedsize math symbol bitmaps.
 MathML: A product of the W3C Math working group, is a lowlevel specification for describing mathematics as a basis for machine to machine communication.