# Ballistic limit

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The **ballistic limit** or **limit velocity** is the velocity required for a particular projectile to reliably (at least 50% of the time) penetrate a particular piece of material. In other words, a given projectile will not pierce a given target when the projectile velocity is lower than the ballistic limit.^{[1]} The term *ballistic limit* is used specifically in the context of armor; *limit velocity* is used in other contexts.^{[1]}

The ballistic limit equation for laminates, as derived by Reid and Wen^{[2]} is as follows:

- is the ballistic limit
- is a projectile constant determined experimentally
- is the density of the laminate
- is the static linear elastic compression limit
- is the diameter of the projectile
- is the thickness of the laminate
- is the mass of the projectile

Additionally, the ballistic limit for small-caliber into homogeneous armor by TM5-855-1 is:

- is the ballistic limit velocity in fps
- is the caliber of the projectile, in inches
- is the thickness of the homogeneous armor (valid from BHN 360 - 440) in inches
- is the angle of obliquity
- is the weight of the projetile, in lbs

## References

- ↑
^{1.0}^{1.1}{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} - ↑ SR Reid, HM Wen. "Perforation of FRP laminates and sandwich panels subjected to missile impact". In: SR Reid, G Zhou, editors. "Impact behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite materials and structures". Cambridge: Woodhead Publishers Ltd. 2000. In: G Reyes Villanueva, WJ Cantwell (2004). "The high velocity impact response of composite and FML-reinforced sandwich structures".
*Composites Science and Technology***64**:35-54. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print.