# Coherence length

{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Merge |date=__DATE__ |$B= Template:MboxTemplate:DMCTemplate:Merge partner }} In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence. Wave interference is strong when the paths taken by all of the interfering waves differ by less than the coherence length. A wave with a longer coherence length is closer to a perfect sinusoidal wave. Coherence length is important in holography and telecommunications engineering.

This article focuses on the coherence of classical electromagnetic fields. In quantum mechanics, there is a mathematically analogous concept of the quantum coherence length of a wave function.

## Formulas

In radio-band systems, the coherence length is approximated by

${\displaystyle L={c \over n\,\Delta f},}$

where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, n is the refractive index of the medium, and ${\displaystyle \Delta f}$ is the bandwidth of the source.

In optical communications, the coherence length ${\displaystyle L}$ is given by [1]

${\displaystyle L={2\ln(2) \over \pi n}{\lambda ^{2} \over \Delta \lambda },}$

where ${\displaystyle \lambda }$ is the central wavelength of the source, ${\displaystyle n}$ is the refractive index of the medium, and ${\displaystyle \Delta \lambda }$ is the spectral width of the source. If the source has a Gaussian spectrum with FWHM spectral width ${\displaystyle \Delta \lambda }$, then a path offset of ±${\displaystyle L}$ will reduce the fringe visibility to 50%.

Coherence length is usually applied to the optical regime.

The expression above is a frequently used approximation. Due to ambiguities in the definition of spectral width of a source, however, the following definition of coherence length has been suggested:

The coherence length can be measured using a Michelson interferometer and is the optical path length difference of a self-interfering laser beam which corresponds to a ${\displaystyle 1/e=37\%}$ fringe visibility,[2] where the fringe visibility is defined as

${\displaystyle V={I_{\max }-I_{\min } \over I_{\max }+I_{\min }},\,}$

where ${\displaystyle I}$ is the fringe intensity.

In long-distance transmission systems, the coherence length may be reduced by propagation factors such as dispersion, scattering, and diffraction.

## Lasers

Multimode helium–neon lasers have a typical coherence length of 20 cm, while the coherence length of singlemode ones can exceed 100 m. Semiconductor lasers reach some 100 m. Singlemode fiber lasers with linewidths of a few kHz can have coherence lengths exceeding 100 km. Similar coherence lengths can be reached with optical frequency combs due to the narrow linewidth of each tooth. Non-zero visibility is present only for short intervals of pulses repeated after cavity length distances up to this long coherence length.