# Kleene's O

In mathematics, the Veblen functions are a hierarchy of normal functions (continuous strictly increasing functions from ordinals to ordinals), introduced by Oswald Veblen in Template:Harvtxt. If φ0 is any normal function, then for any non-zero ordinal α, φα is the function enumerating the common fixed points of φβ for β<α. These functions are all normal.

## The Veblen hierarchy

In the special case when φ0(α)=ωα this family of functions is known as the Veblen hierarchy. The function φ1 is the same as the ε function: φ1(α)= εα. If ${\displaystyle \alpha <\beta \,,}$ then ${\displaystyle \varphi _{\alpha }(\varphi _{\beta }(\gamma ))=\varphi _{\beta }(\gamma )\,.}$ From this and the fact that φβ is strictly increasing we get the ordering: ${\displaystyle \varphi _{\alpha }(\beta )<\varphi _{\gamma }(\delta )\,}$ if and only if either (${\displaystyle \alpha =\gamma \,}$ and ${\displaystyle \beta <\delta \,}$) or (${\displaystyle \alpha <\gamma \,}$ and ${\displaystyle \beta <\varphi _{\gamma }(\delta )\,}$) or (${\displaystyle \alpha >\gamma \,}$ and ${\displaystyle \varphi _{\alpha }(\beta )<\delta \,}$).

### Fundamental sequences for the Veblen hierarchy

The fundamental sequence for an ordinal with cofinality ω is a distinguished strictly increasing ω-sequence which has the ordinal as its limit. If one has fundamental sequences for α and all smaller limit ordinals, then one can create an explicit constructive bijection between ω and α, (i.e. one not using the axiom of choice). Here we will describe fundamental sequences for the Veblen hierarchy of ordinals. The image of n under the fundamental sequence for α will be indicated by α[n].

A variation of Cantor normal form used in connection with the Veblen hierarchy is — every nonzero ordinal number α can be uniquely written as ${\displaystyle \alpha =\varphi _{\beta _{1}}(\gamma _{1})+\varphi _{\beta _{2}}(\gamma _{2})+\cdots +\varphi _{\beta _{k}}(\gamma _{k})}$, where k>0 is a natural number and each term after the first is less than or equal to the previous term, ${\displaystyle \varphi _{\beta _{m}}(\gamma _{m})\geq \varphi _{\beta _{m+1}}(\gamma _{m+1})\,,}$ and each ${\displaystyle \gamma _{m}<\varphi _{\beta _{m}}(\gamma _{m})\,.}$ If a fundamental sequence can be provided for the last term, then that term can be replaced by such a sequence to get ${\displaystyle \alpha [n]=\varphi _{\beta _{1}}(\gamma _{1})+\cdots +\varphi _{\beta _{k-1}}(\gamma _{k-1})+(\varphi _{\beta _{k}}(\gamma _{k})[n])\,.}$

No such sequence can be provided for ${\displaystyle \varphi _{0}(0)}$ = ω0 = 1 because it does not have cofinality ω.

Now suppose that β is a limit:

Otherwise, the ordinal cannot be described in terms of smaller ordinals using ${\displaystyle \varphi }$ and this scheme does not apply to it.

### The Γ function

The function Γ enumerates the ordinals α such that φα(0) = α. Γ0 is the Feferman–Schütte ordinal, i.e. it is the smallest α such that φα(0) = α.

For Γ0, a fundamental sequence could be chosen to be ${\displaystyle \Gamma _{0}[0]=0\,}$ and ${\displaystyle \Gamma _{0}[n+1]=\varphi _{\Gamma _{0}[n]}(0)\,.}$

## Generalizations

### Finitely many variables

In this section it is more convenient to think of φα(β) as a function φ(α,β) of two variables. Veblen showed how to generalize the definition to produce a function φ(αnn−1,…,α0) of several variables, namely: let

• φ(α)=ωα for a single variable,
• φ(0,αn−1,…,α0)=φ(αn−1,…,α0), and
• γ↦φ(αn,…,αi+1,α,0,…,0,γ) be the function enumerating the common fixed points of the functions ξ↦φ(αn,…,αi+1,β,ξ,0,…,0) for all β<α.

For example, φ(1,0,γ) is the γ-th fixed point of the functions ξ↦φ(ξ,0), namely Γγ; then φ(1,1,γ) enumerates the fixed points of that function, i.e., of the ξ↦Γξ function; and φ(2,0,γ) enumerates the fixed points of all the ξ↦φ(1,ξ,0). Each instance of the generalized Veblen functions is continuous in the last nonzero variable (i.e., if one variable is made to vary and all later variables are kept constantly equal to zero).

The ordinal φ(1,0,0,0) is sometimes known as the Ackermann ordinal. The limit of the φ(1,0,…,0) where the number of zeroes ranges over ω, is sometimes known as the “small” Veblen ordinal.

### Transfinitely many variables

More generally, Veblen showed that φ can be defined even for a transfinite sequence of ordinals αβ, provided that all but a finite number of them are zero. Notice that if such a sequence of ordinals is chosen from those less than an uncountable regular cardinal κ, then the sequence may be encoded as a single ordinal less than κκ. So one is defining a function φ from κκ into κ.

The definition can be given as follows: let α be a transfinite sequence of ordinals (i.e., an ordinal function with finite support) which ends in zero (i.e., such that α₀=0), and let α[0↦γ] denote the same function where the final 0 has been replaced by γ. Then γ↦φ(α[0↦γ]) is defined as the function enumerating the common fixed points of all functions ξ↦φ(β) where β ranges over all sequences which are obtained by decreasing the smallest-indexed nonzero value of α and replacing some smaller-indexed value with the indeterminate ξ (i.e., β=α[ι₀↦ζ,ι↦ξ] meaning that for the smallest index ι₀ such that αι₀ is nonzero the latter has been replaced by some value ζ<αι₀ and that for some smaller index ι<ι₀, the value αι=0 has been replaced with ξ).

For example, if α=(ω↦1) denotes the transfinite sequence with value 1 at ω and 0 everywhere else, then φ(ω↦1) is the smallest fixed point of all the functions ξ↦φ(ξ,0,…,0) with finitely many final zeroes (it is also the limit of the φ(1,0,…,0) with finitely many zeroes, the small Veblen ordinal).

The smallest ordinal α such that α is greater than φ applied to any function with support in α (i.e., which cannot be reached “from below” using the Veblen function of transfinitely many variables) is sometimes known as the “large” Veblen ordinal.

## References

• Hilbert Levitz, Transfinite Ordinals and Their Notations: For The Uninitiated, expository article (8 pages, in PostScript)
• Many property agents need to declare for the PIC grant in Singapore. However, not all of them know find out how to do the correct process for getting this PIC scheme from the IRAS. There are a number of steps that you need to do before your software can be approved.

Naturally, you will have to pay a safety deposit and that is usually one month rent for annually of the settlement. That is the place your good religion deposit will likely be taken into account and will kind part or all of your security deposit. Anticipate to have a proportionate amount deducted out of your deposit if something is discovered to be damaged if you move out. It's best to you'll want to test the inventory drawn up by the owner, which can detail all objects in the property and their condition. If you happen to fail to notice any harm not already mentioned within the inventory before transferring in, you danger having to pay for it yourself.

In case you are in search of an actual estate or Singapore property agent on-line, you simply should belief your intuition. It's because you do not know which agent is nice and which agent will not be. Carry out research on several brokers by looking out the internet. As soon as if you end up positive that a selected agent is dependable and reliable, you can choose to utilize his partnerise in finding you a home in Singapore. Most of the time, a property agent is taken into account to be good if he or she locations the contact data on his website. This may mean that the agent does not mind you calling them and asking them any questions relating to new properties in singapore in Singapore. After chatting with them you too can see them in their office after taking an appointment.

Have handed an trade examination i.e Widespread Examination for House Brokers (CEHA) or Actual Property Agency (REA) examination, or equal; Exclusive brokers are extra keen to share listing information thus making certain the widest doable coverage inside the real estate community via Multiple Listings and Networking. Accepting a severe provide is simpler since your agent is totally conscious of all advertising activity related with your property. This reduces your having to check with a number of agents for some other offers. Price control is easily achieved. Paint work in good restore-discuss with your Property Marketing consultant if main works are still to be done. Softening in residential property prices proceed, led by 2.8 per cent decline within the index for Remainder of Central Region

Once you place down the one per cent choice price to carry down a non-public property, it's important to accept its situation as it is whenever you move in – faulty air-con, choked rest room and all. Get round this by asking your agent to incorporate a ultimate inspection clause within the possibility-to-buy letter. HDB flat patrons routinely take pleasure in this security net. "There's a ultimate inspection of the property two days before the completion of all HDB transactions. If the air-con is defective, you can request the seller to repair it," says Kelvin.

15.6.1 As the agent is an intermediary, generally, as soon as the principal and third party are introduced right into a contractual relationship, the agent drops out of the image, subject to any problems with remuneration or indemnification that he could have against the principal, and extra exceptionally, against the third occasion. Generally, agents are entitled to be indemnified for all liabilities reasonably incurred within the execution of the brokers´ authority.

To achieve the very best outcomes, you must be always updated on market situations, including past transaction information and reliable projections. You could review and examine comparable homes that are currently available in the market, especially these which have been sold or not bought up to now six months. You'll be able to see a pattern of such report by clicking here It's essential to defend yourself in opposition to unscrupulous patrons. They are often very skilled in using highly unethical and manipulative techniques to try and lure you into a lure. That you must also protect your self, your loved ones, and personal belongings as you'll be serving many strangers in your home. Sign a listing itemizing of all of the objects provided by the proprietor, together with their situation. HSR Prime Recruiter 2010
• Many property agents need to declare for the PIC grant in Singapore. However, not all of them know find out how to do the correct process for getting this PIC scheme from the IRAS. There are a number of steps that you need to do before your software can be approved.

Naturally, you will have to pay a safety deposit and that is usually one month rent for annually of the settlement. That is the place your good religion deposit will likely be taken into account and will kind part or all of your security deposit. Anticipate to have a proportionate amount deducted out of your deposit if something is discovered to be damaged if you move out. It's best to you'll want to test the inventory drawn up by the owner, which can detail all objects in the property and their condition. If you happen to fail to notice any harm not already mentioned within the inventory before transferring in, you danger having to pay for it yourself.

In case you are in search of an actual estate or Singapore property agent on-line, you simply should belief your intuition. It's because you do not know which agent is nice and which agent will not be. Carry out research on several brokers by looking out the internet. As soon as if you end up positive that a selected agent is dependable and reliable, you can choose to utilize his partnerise in finding you a home in Singapore. Most of the time, a property agent is taken into account to be good if he or she locations the contact data on his website. This may mean that the agent does not mind you calling them and asking them any questions relating to new properties in singapore in Singapore. After chatting with them you too can see them in their office after taking an appointment.

Have handed an trade examination i.e Widespread Examination for House Brokers (CEHA) or Actual Property Agency (REA) examination, or equal; Exclusive brokers are extra keen to share listing information thus making certain the widest doable coverage inside the real estate community via Multiple Listings and Networking. Accepting a severe provide is simpler since your agent is totally conscious of all advertising activity related with your property. This reduces your having to check with a number of agents for some other offers. Price control is easily achieved. Paint work in good restore-discuss with your Property Marketing consultant if main works are still to be done. Softening in residential property prices proceed, led by 2.8 per cent decline within the index for Remainder of Central Region

Once you place down the one per cent choice price to carry down a non-public property, it's important to accept its situation as it is whenever you move in – faulty air-con, choked rest room and all. Get round this by asking your agent to incorporate a ultimate inspection clause within the possibility-to-buy letter. HDB flat patrons routinely take pleasure in this security net. "There's a ultimate inspection of the property two days before the completion of all HDB transactions. If the air-con is defective, you can request the seller to repair it," says Kelvin.

15.6.1 As the agent is an intermediary, generally, as soon as the principal and third party are introduced right into a contractual relationship, the agent drops out of the image, subject to any problems with remuneration or indemnification that he could have against the principal, and extra exceptionally, against the third occasion. Generally, agents are entitled to be indemnified for all liabilities reasonably incurred within the execution of the brokers´ authority.

To achieve the very best outcomes, you must be always updated on market situations, including past transaction information and reliable projections. You could review and examine comparable homes that are currently available in the market, especially these which have been sold or not bought up to now six months. You'll be able to see a pattern of such report by clicking here It's essential to defend yourself in opposition to unscrupulous patrons. They are often very skilled in using highly unethical and manipulative techniques to try and lure you into a lure. That you must also protect your self, your loved ones, and personal belongings as you'll be serving many strangers in your home. Sign a listing itemizing of all of the objects provided by the proprietor, together with their situation. HSR Prime Recruiter 2010
• Many property agents need to declare for the PIC grant in Singapore. However, not all of them know find out how to do the correct process for getting this PIC scheme from the IRAS. There are a number of steps that you need to do before your software can be approved.

Naturally, you will have to pay a safety deposit and that is usually one month rent for annually of the settlement. That is the place your good religion deposit will likely be taken into account and will kind part or all of your security deposit. Anticipate to have a proportionate amount deducted out of your deposit if something is discovered to be damaged if you move out. It's best to you'll want to test the inventory drawn up by the owner, which can detail all objects in the property and their condition. If you happen to fail to notice any harm not already mentioned within the inventory before transferring in, you danger having to pay for it yourself.

In case you are in search of an actual estate or Singapore property agent on-line, you simply should belief your intuition. It's because you do not know which agent is nice and which agent will not be. Carry out research on several brokers by looking out the internet. As soon as if you end up positive that a selected agent is dependable and reliable, you can choose to utilize his partnerise in finding you a home in Singapore. Most of the time, a property agent is taken into account to be good if he or she locations the contact data on his website. This may mean that the agent does not mind you calling them and asking them any questions relating to new properties in singapore in Singapore. After chatting with them you too can see them in their office after taking an appointment.

Have handed an trade examination i.e Widespread Examination for House Brokers (CEHA) or Actual Property Agency (REA) examination, or equal; Exclusive brokers are extra keen to share listing information thus making certain the widest doable coverage inside the real estate community via Multiple Listings and Networking. Accepting a severe provide is simpler since your agent is totally conscious of all advertising activity related with your property. This reduces your having to check with a number of agents for some other offers. Price control is easily achieved. Paint work in good restore-discuss with your Property Marketing consultant if main works are still to be done. Softening in residential property prices proceed, led by 2.8 per cent decline within the index for Remainder of Central Region

Once you place down the one per cent choice price to carry down a non-public property, it's important to accept its situation as it is whenever you move in – faulty air-con, choked rest room and all. Get round this by asking your agent to incorporate a ultimate inspection clause within the possibility-to-buy letter. HDB flat patrons routinely take pleasure in this security net. "There's a ultimate inspection of the property two days before the completion of all HDB transactions. If the air-con is defective, you can request the seller to repair it," says Kelvin.

15.6.1 As the agent is an intermediary, generally, as soon as the principal and third party are introduced right into a contractual relationship, the agent drops out of the image, subject to any problems with remuneration or indemnification that he could have against the principal, and extra exceptionally, against the third occasion. Generally, agents are entitled to be indemnified for all liabilities reasonably incurred within the execution of the brokers´ authority.

To achieve the very best outcomes, you must be always updated on market situations, including past transaction information and reliable projections. You could review and examine comparable homes that are currently available in the market, especially these which have been sold or not bought up to now six months. You'll be able to see a pattern of such report by clicking here It's essential to defend yourself in opposition to unscrupulous patrons. They are often very skilled in using highly unethical and manipulative techniques to try and lure you into a lure. That you must also protect your self, your loved ones, and personal belongings as you'll be serving many strangers in your home. Sign a listing itemizing of all of the objects provided by the proprietor, together with their situation. HSR Prime Recruiter 2010
• Many property agents need to declare for the PIC grant in Singapore. However, not all of them know find out how to do the correct process for getting this PIC scheme from the IRAS. There are a number of steps that you need to do before your software can be approved.

Naturally, you will have to pay a safety deposit and that is usually one month rent for annually of the settlement. That is the place your good religion deposit will likely be taken into account and will kind part or all of your security deposit. Anticipate to have a proportionate amount deducted out of your deposit if something is discovered to be damaged if you move out. It's best to you'll want to test the inventory drawn up by the owner, which can detail all objects in the property and their condition. If you happen to fail to notice any harm not already mentioned within the inventory before transferring in, you danger having to pay for it yourself.

In case you are in search of an actual estate or Singapore property agent on-line, you simply should belief your intuition. It's because you do not know which agent is nice and which agent will not be. Carry out research on several brokers by looking out the internet. As soon as if you end up positive that a selected agent is dependable and reliable, you can choose to utilize his partnerise in finding you a home in Singapore. Most of the time, a property agent is taken into account to be good if he or she locations the contact data on his website. This may mean that the agent does not mind you calling them and asking them any questions relating to new properties in singapore in Singapore. After chatting with them you too can see them in their office after taking an appointment.

Have handed an trade examination i.e Widespread Examination for House Brokers (CEHA) or Actual Property Agency (REA) examination, or equal; Exclusive brokers are extra keen to share listing information thus making certain the widest doable coverage inside the real estate community via Multiple Listings and Networking. Accepting a severe provide is simpler since your agent is totally conscious of all advertising activity related with your property. This reduces your having to check with a number of agents for some other offers. Price control is easily achieved. Paint work in good restore-discuss with your Property Marketing consultant if main works are still to be done. Softening in residential property prices proceed, led by 2.8 per cent decline within the index for Remainder of Central Region

Once you place down the one per cent choice price to carry down a non-public property, it's important to accept its situation as it is whenever you move in – faulty air-con, choked rest room and all. Get round this by asking your agent to incorporate a ultimate inspection clause within the possibility-to-buy letter. HDB flat patrons routinely take pleasure in this security net. "There's a ultimate inspection of the property two days before the completion of all HDB transactions. If the air-con is defective, you can request the seller to repair it," says Kelvin.

15.6.1 As the agent is an intermediary, generally, as soon as the principal and third party are introduced right into a contractual relationship, the agent drops out of the image, subject to any problems with remuneration or indemnification that he could have against the principal, and extra exceptionally, against the third occasion. Generally, agents are entitled to be indemnified for all liabilities reasonably incurred within the execution of the brokers´ authority.

To achieve the very best outcomes, you must be always updated on market situations, including past transaction information and reliable projections. You could review and examine comparable homes that are currently available in the market, especially these which have been sold or not bought up to now six months. You'll be able to see a pattern of such report by clicking here It's essential to defend yourself in opposition to unscrupulous patrons. They are often very skilled in using highly unethical and manipulative techniques to try and lure you into a lure. That you must also protect your self, your loved ones, and personal belongings as you'll be serving many strangers in your home. Sign a listing itemizing of all of the objects provided by the proprietor, together with their situation. HSR Prime Recruiter 2010 contains an informal description of the Veblen hierarchy.
• Many property agents need to declare for the PIC grant in Singapore. However, not all of them know find out how to do the correct process for getting this PIC scheme from the IRAS. There are a number of steps that you need to do before your software can be approved.

Naturally, you will have to pay a safety deposit and that is usually one month rent for annually of the settlement. That is the place your good religion deposit will likely be taken into account and will kind part or all of your security deposit. Anticipate to have a proportionate amount deducted out of your deposit if something is discovered to be damaged if you move out. It's best to you'll want to test the inventory drawn up by the owner, which can detail all objects in the property and their condition. If you happen to fail to notice any harm not already mentioned within the inventory before transferring in, you danger having to pay for it yourself.

In case you are in search of an actual estate or Singapore property agent on-line, you simply should belief your intuition. It's because you do not know which agent is nice and which agent will not be. Carry out research on several brokers by looking out the internet. As soon as if you end up positive that a selected agent is dependable and reliable, you can choose to utilize his partnerise in finding you a home in Singapore. Most of the time, a property agent is taken into account to be good if he or she locations the contact data on his website. This may mean that the agent does not mind you calling them and asking them any questions relating to new properties in singapore in Singapore. After chatting with them you too can see them in their office after taking an appointment.

Have handed an trade examination i.e Widespread Examination for House Brokers (CEHA) or Actual Property Agency (REA) examination, or equal; Exclusive brokers are extra keen to share listing information thus making certain the widest doable coverage inside the real estate community via Multiple Listings and Networking. Accepting a severe provide is simpler since your agent is totally conscious of all advertising activity related with your property. This reduces your having to check with a number of agents for some other offers. Price control is easily achieved. Paint work in good restore-discuss with your Property Marketing consultant if main works are still to be done. Softening in residential property prices proceed, led by 2.8 per cent decline within the index for Remainder of Central Region

Once you place down the one per cent choice price to carry down a non-public property, it's important to accept its situation as it is whenever you move in – faulty air-con, choked rest room and all. Get round this by asking your agent to incorporate a ultimate inspection clause within the possibility-to-buy letter. HDB flat patrons routinely take pleasure in this security net. "There's a ultimate inspection of the property two days before the completion of all HDB transactions. If the air-con is defective, you can request the seller to repair it," says Kelvin.

15.6.1 As the agent is an intermediary, generally, as soon as the principal and third party are introduced right into a contractual relationship, the agent drops out of the image, subject to any problems with remuneration or indemnification that he could have against the principal, and extra exceptionally, against the third occasion. Generally, agents are entitled to be indemnified for all liabilities reasonably incurred within the execution of the brokers´ authority.

To achieve the very best outcomes, you must be always updated on market situations, including past transaction information and reliable projections. You could review and examine comparable homes that are currently available in the market, especially these which have been sold or not bought up to now six months. You'll be able to see a pattern of such report by clicking here It's essential to defend yourself in opposition to unscrupulous patrons. They are often very skilled in using highly unethical and manipulative techniques to try and lure you into a lure. That you must also protect your self, your loved ones, and personal belongings as you'll be serving many strangers in your home. Sign a listing itemizing of all of the objects provided by the proprietor, together with their situation. HSR Prime Recruiter 2010
• Many property agents need to declare for the PIC grant in Singapore. However, not all of them know find out how to do the correct process for getting this PIC scheme from the IRAS. There are a number of steps that you need to do before your software can be approved.

Naturally, you will have to pay a safety deposit and that is usually one month rent for annually of the settlement. That is the place your good religion deposit will likely be taken into account and will kind part or all of your security deposit. Anticipate to have a proportionate amount deducted out of your deposit if something is discovered to be damaged if you move out. It's best to you'll want to test the inventory drawn up by the owner, which can detail all objects in the property and their condition. If you happen to fail to notice any harm not already mentioned within the inventory before transferring in, you danger having to pay for it yourself.

In case you are in search of an actual estate or Singapore property agent on-line, you simply should belief your intuition. It's because you do not know which agent is nice and which agent will not be. Carry out research on several brokers by looking out the internet. As soon as if you end up positive that a selected agent is dependable and reliable, you can choose to utilize his partnerise in finding you a home in Singapore. Most of the time, a property agent is taken into account to be good if he or she locations the contact data on his website. This may mean that the agent does not mind you calling them and asking them any questions relating to new properties in singapore in Singapore. After chatting with them you too can see them in their office after taking an appointment.

Have handed an trade examination i.e Widespread Examination for House Brokers (CEHA) or Actual Property Agency (REA) examination, or equal; Exclusive brokers are extra keen to share listing information thus making certain the widest doable coverage inside the real estate community via Multiple Listings and Networking. Accepting a severe provide is simpler since your agent is totally conscious of all advertising activity related with your property. This reduces your having to check with a number of agents for some other offers. Price control is easily achieved. Paint work in good restore-discuss with your Property Marketing consultant if main works are still to be done. Softening in residential property prices proceed, led by 2.8 per cent decline within the index for Remainder of Central Region

Once you place down the one per cent choice price to carry down a non-public property, it's important to accept its situation as it is whenever you move in – faulty air-con, choked rest room and all. Get round this by asking your agent to incorporate a ultimate inspection clause within the possibility-to-buy letter. HDB flat patrons routinely take pleasure in this security net. "There's a ultimate inspection of the property two days before the completion of all HDB transactions. If the air-con is defective, you can request the seller to repair it," says Kelvin.

15.6.1 As the agent is an intermediary, generally, as soon as the principal and third party are introduced right into a contractual relationship, the agent drops out of the image, subject to any problems with remuneration or indemnification that he could have against the principal, and extra exceptionally, against the third occasion. Generally, agents are entitled to be indemnified for all liabilities reasonably incurred within the execution of the brokers´ authority.

To achieve the very best outcomes, you must be always updated on market situations, including past transaction information and reliable projections. You could review and examine comparable homes that are currently available in the market, especially these which have been sold or not bought up to now six months. You'll be able to see a pattern of such report by clicking here It's essential to defend yourself in opposition to unscrupulous patrons. They are often very skilled in using highly unethical and manipulative techniques to try and lure you into a lure. That you must also protect your self, your loved ones, and personal belongings as you'll be serving many strangers in your home. Sign a listing itemizing of all of the objects provided by the proprietor, together with their situation. HSR Prime Recruiter 2010