Manual of Style/Dates and numbers

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Template:Use British English Template:Style-guideline Template:Pp-semiTemplate:Pp-move-indef {{#invoke: Sidebar | collapsible }}

This part of the Manual of Style helps editors to achieve consistency in the use and formatting of numbers, dates, times, measurements, currencies, and coordinates in Wikipedia articles. Consistency in style and formatting promotes clarity and cohesion; this is especially important within an article. The goal is to make the whole encyclopedia easier and more intuitive to use. Try to write so the text cannot be misunderstood, and take account of what is likely to be familiar to readers. The less that readers have to look up definitions, the easier the text will be to understand.

Where this manual provides options, consistency should be maintained within an article unless there is a good reason to do otherwise. The Arbitration Committee has ruled that editors should not change an article from one guideline-defined style to another without a substantial reason unrelated to mere choice of style, and that revert-warring over optional styles is unacceptable.[1] If discussion cannot determine which style to use in an article, defer to the style used by the first major contributor.

General notes

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Quotations, titles, etc.

{{#invoke:see also|seealso}} Quotations, titles of books and articles, and similar "imported" text should be faithfully reproduced, even if they employ formats or units inconsistent with these guidelines or with other formats in the same article. If necessary, clarify via [bracketed interpolation], article text, or footnotes.

  • It is acceptable to change other date formats in the same article to provide consistency, so long as those changes would otherwise be acceptable.

Non-breaking spaces

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Chronological items

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Statements likely to become outdated

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Except on pages which are updated regularly (e.g. current events), avoid statements that are likely to become quickly outdated. Avoid words such as Template:!xt, Template:!xt or Template:!xt (unless their intended meaning is clear), Template:!xt and Template:!xt (except on rare occasions where they are not redundant), or phrases such as Template:!xt. Instead, use more precise phrases such as Template:Xt or Template:Xt. For future and current events, use phrases such as Template:Xt or Template:Xt to signal the time-dependence of the information. (It may be useful to re-read a passage from the perspective of a reader five years in the future.)

Relative-time expressions are acceptable for very long periods, such as geological epochs: Template:Xt

To help editors keep information up to date, statements about current and future events may be used with the as of technique, which uses the {{as of}} template to tag information that may become dated quickly: Template:Tlc produces the text Template:Xt and categorises the article appropriately. This technique is not an alternative to using precise language. For instance, one should not replace Template:Xt with Template:Tlc because some information (the start of 2005) would be lost; instead, use either the plain text or a more advanced feature of Template:Tlf such as {{as of|2005|alt=since the start of 2005}}.

Time of day

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Context determines whether the 12- or 24-hour clock is used; in both, colons separate hours, minutes and seconds (e.g. Template:Xt or Template:Xt).

Time of day is normally expressed in figures rather than being spelled out. For details, and information on time intervals (e.g. 5 minutes), see Numbers as figures or words, below.

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Time zones

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When giving a date, consider where the event happened and use the time zone there. For example, the date of the attack on Pearl Harbor should be December 7, 1941 (Hawaii time/date). In judging where, give priority to the place at which the event had its most significant effects; for example, if a hacker based in Japan attacked a Pentagon computer in the US, use the time zone for the Pentagon, where the attack had its effect. In some cases the best solution may be to give the date and time in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For example:

Template:Xt

Alternatively, just include the UTC offset:

Template:Xt

Rarely, the time zone in which a historical event took place has changed since that epoch; for example, China under the Republic was divided into five time zones (see Historical time zones of China) while all of modern China is UTC+8. Similarly, the term "UTC" is not appropriate for dates before this system was adopted in 1961; Universal Time (UT) is the appropriate term for the mean time at the prime meridian (Greenwich) when it is unnecessary to specify the precise definition of the time scale. Be sure to show the UTC or offset appropriate to the clock time in use at the time of the event, not the modern time zone, if they may differ.

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} Dates and years

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Formats

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} Date formats
Acceptable date formats
General use Only where brevity is required (references,[2] tables, lists, etc.) Notes
Template:Xt Template:Xt
Template:Xt Template:Xt bulleted}}
Template:Xt Template:Xt Omit year only where there is no risk of ambiguity: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|bulleted}}
Template:Xt Template:Xt
No equivalent for general use Template:Xt Use only with Gregorian dates between 1583 andTemplate:Nbsp9999[4]

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}

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Unacceptable date formats (except in external titles and quotes)
Unacceptable Acceptable
Do not use 1st, 2nd, 3rd,Template:Nbspetc. Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:Xt or Template:Xt
Do not add a dot to theTemplate:Nbspday Template:!xt
Do not "zero-pad" month and day, except in all-numeric (Template:Small caps) format Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:!xt Template:Xt
Do not use separators other thanTemplate:Nbsphyphen Template:!xt
Do not use Template:Small caps or Template:Small caps as they areTemplate:Nbspambiguous[5] Template:!xt
Template:!xt
???
Do not use theseTemplate:Nbspformats Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:Xt
No comma between month andTemplate:Nbspyear Template:!xt
Template:!xt Template:Xt
Comma required between day andTemplate:Nbspyear Template:!xt Template:Xt
Do not use an apostrophe to abbreviateTemplate:Nbspyear Template:!xt Template:Xt
Roman numerals are not normally used forTemplate:Nbspdates Template:!xt Template:Xt
Years and days of the month are not normally written inTemplate:Nbspwords Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt or Template:Xt
Use "in the year" only where needed for clarity (Template:Xt) Template:!xt Template:Xt
{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Consistency
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Template:Xt
Template:Xt
but not:
Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
but not:
Template:!xt
Template:!xt
Template:!xt

See: {{Use dmy dates}}, {{Use mdy dates}}

Strong national ties to a topic
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  • Articles on topics with strong ties to a particular English-speaking country should generally use the more common date format for that nation. For the United States, this is month before day; for most others, it is day before month. Articles related to Canada may use either format consistently.
  • Sometimes the customary format differs from the usual national one: for example, articles on the modern US military use day before month, in accordance with military usage.
{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Retaining existing format
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  • If an article has evolved using predominantly one format, the whole article should conform to it, unless there are reasons for changing it based on strong national ties to the topic or consensus on article talk.
  • The date format chosen by the first major contributor in the early stages of an article should continue to be used, unless there is reason to change it based on strong national ties to the topic or consensus on article talk.
  • Where an article has shown no clear sign of which format is used, the first person to insert a date is equivalent to "the first major contributor".

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Era style

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  • The default calendar era is the Western Dionysian era system, a year numbering system also known as the Western Christian era (represented by Template:Xt), or the Common Era (represented by Template:Xt).
    • BC and AD are the traditional ways of referring to this era. BCE and CE are common in some scholarly texts and religious writings. Either convention may be appropriate.
      • Do not change the established era style in an article unless there are reasons specific to its content. Seek consensus on the talk page before making the change. Open the discussion under a subhead that uses the word "era". Briefly state why the style is inappropriate for the article in question. A personal or categorical preference for one era style over the other is not justification for making a change.
      • BCE and CE or BC and AD are written in upper case, unspaced, without periods (full stops), and separated from the year number by a space (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt). It is advisable to use a non-breaking space.
      • Template:Xt may appear before or after a year (Template:Xt, Template:Xt); the other abbreviations appear after (Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt).
      • Do not use CE or AD unless the date or century would be ambiguous without it (e.g. "The Norman Conquest took place in Template:Xt" not Template:!xt nor Template:!xt). On the other hand, Template:Xt will avoid unnecessary confusion. Also, in Template:Xt the era marker makes it clear that "55" does not refer to his age. Alternatively, Template:Xt
      • Use either the BC–AD or the BCE–CE notation consistently within the same article. Exception: do not change direct quotations.
  • Uncalibrated (bce) radiocarbon dates: Some source materials will indicate whether a date is calibrated or not simply by a change in capitalisation; this is often a source of confusion for the unwary reader. Do not give uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (represented by the lower-case bce unit, occasionally bc or b.c. in some sources), except in directly quoted material, and even then include a footnote, a square-bracketed editor's note [like this], or other indication to the reader what the calibrated date is, or at least that the date is uncalibrated. Calibrated and uncalibrated dates can diverge surprisingly widely, and the average reader does not recognise the distinction between bce and BCE / BC.
  • BP: In scientific and academic contexts, BP (before present) is often used. This is calibrated from January 1, 1950, not from the date of publication, though the latter introduces an insignificant error when the date is distant or an approximation (18,000 BP). BP years are given as Template:Xt or spelled out as Template:Xt (not Template:!xt, Template:!xt, Template:!xt, or similar.) Do not convert other notations to or from BP unless you are certain of what you are doing. A safer and less complex alternative may be to just use "ya (years ago)".
  • Other era systems may be appropriate in an article. In such cases, dates should be followed by a conversion to Dionysian (or vice versa) and the first instance should be linked: "Qasr-al-Khalifa was built in 221 AH (836 CE)" or "in 836 AD (221 AH)".
    • Astronomical year numbering follows the Common Era and does not require conversion, but the first instance of a non-positive year should still be linked: "The March equinox passed into Pisces in year −67."

Julian and Gregorian calendars

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Dates can be given in any appropriate calendar, as long as the date in either the Julian or Gregorian calendars is provided, as described below. For example, an article on the early history of Islam may give dates in both Islamic and Julian calendars. Where a calendar other than the Julian or Gregorian is used, this must be clear to readers.

  • Current events are given in the Gregorian calendar.
  • Dates before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar on 15 October 1582 are normally given in the Julian calendar. The Julian day and month should not be converted to the Gregorian calendar, but the start of the Julian year should be assumed to be 1 January (see below for more details).
  • Dates for Roman history before 45 BC are given in the Roman calendar, which was neither Julian nor Gregorian. When (rarely) the Julian equivalent is certain, it may be included.
  • The Julian or Gregorian equivalent of dates in early Egyptian and Mesopotamian history is often debatable. Follow the consensus of reliable sources, or indicate their divergence.
  • Dates of events in countries using the Gregorian calendar are given in the Gregorian calendar. This includes some of the Continent of Europe from 1582, the British Empire from 14 September 1752, and Russia from 14 February 1918 (see the Gregorian calendar article).

The dating method used should follow that used by reliable secondary sources. If the reliable secondary sources disagree, choose the most common used by reliable secondary sources and note the usage in a footnote.

At some places and times, dates other than 1 January were used as the start of the year. The most common English-language convention was the Annunciation Style used in Britain and its colonies until 1752, in which the year started on 25 March, Annunciation Day; see the New Year article for a list of other styles. 1 January is assumed to be the opening date for years; if there is reason to use another start-date, this should be noted.

If there is a need to mention Old Style or New Style dates in an article (as in the Glorious Revolution), a footnote should be provided on the first usage, stating whether the New Style refers to a start of year adjustment or to the Gregorian calendar (it can mean either).

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Ranges

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  • A pure year–year range is written (as is any range) using an en dash (– or {{ndash}}), not a hyphen or slash; this dash is usually unspaced (that is, with no space on either side); and the range's "end" year is usually abbreviated to two digits:
Template:Xt;Template:Nbsp Template:Xt (not Template:!xt;Template:Nbsp Template:!xt)
Template:Hanging indent
But both years are given in full in the following cases:
Markup:355{{ndash}}372{{nbsp}}AD
  • spanning from BC/BCE to AD/CE: Template:Xt (note spaced en dash)
Template:Hanging indent
Other notes:
  • Template:Xt generally denotes a two-year range
  • Template:Xt may be used to signify a fiscal year or other special period, if that convention is used in reliable sources
  • Sports seasons straddling JanuaryTemplate:Nbsp1 should be uniformly written as Template:Xt
  • Other "pure" ranges use an unspaced en dash as well:
  • If either or both endpoints are in a "mixed" format (containing two or more of month, day, year) a spaced en dash is used:
Template:Xt
Template:Hanging indent
Template:Xt
Template:Hanging indent
Or use an en dash: Template:Xt;Template:Nbsp Template:Xt.

In biographical infobox templates, it is good practice to use date mathematics templates for age calculation, so as to provide microformat compatibility.Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Biographies for more guidelines on articles about people.

Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates

Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
  • Where both endpoints of a range are approximate, c. should be appear before each date:
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
  • Where birth/death dates have been extrapolated from known dates of activity:
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
  • When a person is known to have been active ("flourishing") during certain years, Template:Xt, [[floruit|fl.]], or {{fl.}} may be used:
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
The linked forms should not be used on disambiguation pages, and "active" followed by the range is a better alternative for artists, soldiers and other persons with an occupation.
  • When a date is known to be either of two years (e.g. from a regnal or AH year conversion, or a known age at death):
Template:Xt
  • Other forms of uncertainty should be expressed in words, either in article text or in a footnote: Template:Xt. Do not use a question mark (Template:!xt) for such purposes, as this fails to communicate the nature of the uncertainty.

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} Linking and autoformatting of dates

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It is no longer recommended to link dates purely for the purpose of autoformatting.[6] Dates should only be linked when they are germane and topical to the subject, as discussed at Wikipedia:Linking#Chronological items.

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Other periods

{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}

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  • {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Months are expressed as whole words (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt), except in the Template:Small caps format (e.g. 2001-05-03). (Note: Template:Small caps format, such as 2001-03 to represent March 2001, is not acceptable due to potential confusion with e.g. the year range 2001Template:Ndash2003). Unlike some other languages, the names of months and days of the week are capitalised in English. Abbreviations such as Template:Xt in the United States or Template:Xt in most other countries are used only where space is extremely limited, such as in tables and infoboxes. Do not insert of, or a comma, between a month and a year (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt or Template:!xt).
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  • {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Seasons. The names of the seasons should only be used when referring to seasonal occurrences. As the seasons are reversed in the northern and southern hemispheres—and areas near the equator tend to have just wet and dry seasons—it is usually preferable to use neutral wording to refer to times of the year (Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, rather than Template:!xt or Template:!xt). Even when the season reference is unambiguous (as when a particular location is clearly involved) a date or month may be preferable to a season name. Seasons may be used when there is a logical connection to the event they are describing (Template:Xt) or when referring to a phase of a natural yearly cycle (Template:Xt).
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  • {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Decades
    • Decades as such contain neither an apostrophe nor the suffix -ies (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt, not Template:!xt, and definitely not Template:!xt). The two-digit form is never used in reference to the decade as a time span per se.
    • The two-digit form, to which a preceding apostrophe should be added, is used only in reference to a social era or cultural phenomenon that roughly corresponds to and is said to define a decade, and only if it is used in a sourceable stock phrase (Template:Xt, Template:Xt), or when there is a notable connection between the period and what is being discussed in the sentence (Template:Xt, but Template:Xt). Such an abbreviation should not be used if it would be redundant (Template:!xt) or if it does not have a clear cultural significance and usage (Template:!xt).
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  • {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}Centuries and millennia
    • For purposes of written style, the English Wikipedia does not recognise a year 0. Therefore, for dates AD (or CE) the 1st century was 1–100, the 17th century was 1601–1700, and the second millennium was 1001–2000; for dates BC (or BCE) the 1st century was 100–1; the 17th century was 1700–1601, and the second millennium was 2000–1001.
    • Centuries and millennia not in quotes or titles should be either spelled out (Template:Xt) or in Arabic numeral(s) (Template:Xt. The same style should be used throughout any article.
    • Forms such as the Template:!xt are normally best avoided since it may be unclear whether a 10- or 100-year period is meant (i.e. 1700–1709 or 1700–1799).
    • Remember that the 18th century (1701–1800) and the 1700s (1700–1799) do not span the exact same period.
  • Abbreviations for long periods of time: When the term is frequent, combine the abbreviations yr for "years" and ya for "years ago" with prefixes k for "thousand" (kya, kyr), m for "million" (mya, myr), and b for "billion" (bya, byr). In academic contexts, annum-based units are often used: ka (kiloannum), Ma (megaannum) and Ga (gigaannum). Some authorities, such as the British Museum, simply spell out "years ago". For any abbreviation, show the meaning of the unit parenthetically on first occurrence and again where use is extensive, or might be a standalone topic of interest. For source quotations use brackets, as in Template:Xt

Numbers

Numbers as figures or words

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Generally, in article text:

  • Integers from zero to nine are spelled out in words
  • Integers greater than nine expressible in one or two words may be expressed either in numerals or in words (Template:Xt or Template:Xt, Template:Xt or Template:Xt, Template:Xt or Template:Xt). In spelling out numbers, "components" from 21 to 99 are hyphenated; larger ones are not:
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt

Notes and exceptions:

Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt, not Template:!xt.
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt not Template:!xt
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt or Template:Xt, not Template:!xt
  • But adjacent quantities that are not comparable should usually be in different formats: Template:Xt or Template:Xt, not Template:!xt or Template:!xt.
  • The numerical elements of times-of-day are not normally spelled out (Template:!xt) though conventional terms such as Template:Xt and Template:Xt are acceptable (taking care, with the latter, to avoid possible date ambiguity in constructions such as midnight on July 17).
  • Centuries are given in figures or words using adjectival hyphenation where appropriate: Template:Xt; Template:Xt. Neither the ordinal nor the word "century" should be capitalised.
  • Do not spell numbers out before symbols for units of measurement: write Template:Xt, Template:Xt, or Template:Xt, but not Template:!xt.
  • Measurements, stock prices, and other quasi-continuous quantities are normally stated in figures, even when the value is a small positive integer: Template:Xt, Template:Xt.
  • Ages are typically stated in figures, unless it is a large, approximate quantity: an Template:Xt, Template:Xt.
  • When expressing large approximate quantities, it is preferable to write them spelled out, or partly in figures and part as a spelledTemplate:Nbhyphout named number; e.g. Template:Xt may be preferable to Template:Xt when the size of the force is not known exactly; write Template:Xt (as it is just an approximation to a number likely to be anywhere between 127,500,000 and 128,500,000), but Template:Xt (the exact quantity).
  • Sometimes, the variety of English used in an article may call for the use of a numbering system other than the Western thousands-based system. For example, the South Asian numbering system is conventionally used in South Asian English. In those situations, link the first spelled-out instance of each quantity (e.g. [[crore]], which yields crore). (If no instances are spelled out, provide a note after the first instance directing the reader to the article about the numbering system.) Also, provide a conversion to Western numbers for the first instance of each quantity, and provide conversions for subsequent instances if they do not overwhelm the content of the article. For example, write Template:Xt. Group digits in Western thousands-based style (e.g., Template:Xt; not Template:!xt): see Delimiting (grouping of digits) below. (Note that the variety of English does not uniquely determine the method of numbering in an article. Other considerations, such as conventions used in mathematics, science and engineering, may also apply, and the choice and order of formats and conversions is a matter of editorial discretion and consensus.)
  • Sometimes figures and words may carry different meanings, for example Template:Xt implies that there is one exception (we don't know which), while Template:Xt means that the specific number 1 is the exception.
  • A sentence never begins with figures:
Not Template:!xt but Template:Xt or Template:Xt
Not Template:!xt (nor Template:!xtTemplate:Snd because comparable numbers should be both written in words or both in figures) but Template:Xt

Typography

Delimiting (grouping of digits)

  • Numbers with five or more digits to the left of the decimal point (i.e. 10,000 or greater) should be delimited into groups so they can be easily parsed, such as by using a comma (Template:Xt) every three digits (e.g. Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt). A full stop (Template:!xt) should not be used to separate thousands (e.g. Template:!xt, Template:!xt) to avoid confusion with the decimal point.
  • Numbers with four digits to the left of the decimal point may or may not be delimited (e.g. Template:Xt or Template:Xt).
  • Numbers are not delimited when they are part of mailing and shipping addresses, page numbers, or years with four or fewer digits; years with five or more digits should be delimited (e.g. Template:Xt).
  • In scientific articles, particularly those directed to an expert readership, numbers may be delimited with thin spaces using the {{gaps}} template: {{gaps|8|274|527}} produces Template:Xt (note: the thin space character and its HTML entity,  , do not render correctly on some browsers or on screen readers used by visually impaired people).
  • Numbers with more than four digits to the right of the decimal point, particularly those in engineering and science where distinctions between different values are important, may be separated (delimited) into groups using the {{val}} template, which uses character-positioning techniques rather than distinct characters to form groups. According to ISO convention (observed by the NIST and the BIPM), it is customary to not leave a single digit at the end, so the last group comprises two, three, or four digits: Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, etc. The {{val}} template handles these grouping details automatically; e.g. {{val|1.1234567}} generates Template:Xt (with a four-digit group at the end), but it can parse no more than a total of 15 significant digits in the significand. For significands longer than this, delimit high-precision values using the {{gaps}} template; e.g. {{gaps|1.234|567|890|123|456}}Template:Xt.
  • Constants in mathematics-oriented articles may be grouped in fives; e.g. Template:Xt.
  • The style of delimiting numbers must be consistent throughout an article.

Large numbers

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  • Large round numbers are generally assumed to be approximations; only where the approximation could be misleading is it necessary to qualify with words such as about.
  • Avoid excessively precise values where they are unlikely to be stable or accurate, or where the precision is unnecessary in the context. The sentence Template:Xt may well be appropriate since it is precisely that value; Template:!xt and Template:!xt are not appropriate, because neither value is stable at that level of precision. The template {{undue precision}} can be used to tag such figures.
  • Scientific notation (e.g. Template:Xt) is preferred in scientific contexts; editors can use the {{val}} template, which generates such expressions with the syntax {{val|5.8|e=7|u=kg}}.
  • Where values in the millions occur a number of times through an article, upper-case M may be used for million, unspaced, after spelling out the first occurrence (e.g. Template:Xt).
  • The named numbers billion and trillion are understood to be short scale, 109 and 1012 respectively (see Long and short scales). After the first occurrence in an article, billion may be abbreviated to unspaced bn (Template:Xt). The prefixes giga-, tera-, and larger and their symbols G, T, ... should be limited to computing and scientific contexts.

Minus sign

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Unary minus sign (Template:Xt) may constitute a part of numeral. This is the case for negative numbers (Template:Xt) and also, for small numbers in the scientific notation, in exponent (Template:Xt). The use of hyphen-minuses (Template:!xt) instead of proper minus signs has several disadvantages and should be avoided.[7] Keyboard-friendly notations such as Template:!xt, Template:!xt or Template:!xt can suddenly appear wrapped in a browser window, making the quantity unreadable.

The unary minus sign can be produced with the − markup code.

There should be no space between a unary "−" and the numeral, for negative numbers, whereas the sign for the binary operation of subtraction does require a space: Template:Xt and Template:Xt are correct, but Template:!xt is incorrect.

Fractions

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  • The templates {{frac}} (e.g. 8Template:Frac) and {{sfrac}} (e.g. 8{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$B=1/2}}) are available for representing common fractions.
  • Mixed numbers are unspaced:

Decimal points

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Percentages

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  • Percentages are usually written with figures—e.g., Template:Xt or Template:Xt.
  • Percent (American English) or per cent (British English) is commonly used to indicate percentages in the body of an article. The symbol % is more common in scientific or technical articles and in complex listings.
  • The symbol is unspaced (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt).
  • In tables and infoboxes, the symbol % is normally preferred to the spelled-out percent or per cent.
  • Ranges should be formatted with one rather than two percentage signifiers (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt).
  • Avoid ambiguity in expressing a change of rates. This can be done by using percentage points, not percentages, to express a change in a percentage or the difference between two percentages; for example, Template:Xt (if the 10% commission had instead been raised by 5%, the new rate would have been 10.5%). It is often possible to recast the sentence to avoid the ambiguity (Template:Xt). Percentage point should not be confused with basis point, which is a hundredth of a percentage point.

Repeating decimals

The preferred way to indicate a repeating decimal is to place a bar over the digits that repeat. To achieve this the template {{overline}} can be used. For example, the markup 14.{{overline|285714}} gives Template:Xt and the fraction Template:Frac (0.036444…) can be written in decimal form as 0.036{{overline|4}} rendering Template:Xt.

Consider a short explanation of this notation (called a vinculum) the first time it is used in an article. Some authors place the repeating digits in parentheses rather than using an overbar (perhaps because overbars are not available in their typesetting environment) but this should be avoided in Wikipedia to avoid confusion with expressing uncertainty.

Non-base-10 notations

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For numbers expressed in bases other than base ten:

  • In computer-related articles, use the C programming language prefixes 0x (zero-ex) for hexadecimal and 0 (zero) for octal. For binary, use 0b. Consider including a note at the top of the page about these prefixes.
  • In all other articles, use subscript notation. For example: Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt (use <sub> and </sub>).
  • For base eleven and higher, use whatever symbols are conventional for that base. One quite common convention, especially for base 16, is to use upper-case A–F for digits from 10 through 15 (Template:Xt).

Scientific notation, engineering notation, and uncertainty

Notations

  • The template {{val}} can be used to facilitate the generation of scientific notation. It is a flexible tool that allows editors great latitude and must have arguments (each section between the vertical bars) properly entered in order for it to generate output that is compliant with formatting conventions.
  • Scientific notation is done in the format of: one leading digit – decimal marker – remaining digits ×10n, where n is the integer that produces a single leading digit.
  • Engineering notation is done in the format of: leading digits – decimal marker – remaining digits ×10n, where n is a multiple of 3. The number of leading digits is not more than three.
  • It is clearer to avoid mixing scientific notation and engineering notation in the same context (do not write Template:!xt).
  • Use discretion when it comes to using scientific and engineering notation. Not all values need to be written in it.
    • Sometimes it is useful to compare values with the same power of 10 (often in tables) and scientific or engineering notation might not be appropriate.
    • Either notation will distinguish the level of precision in a round number such as 5,000, which may mean Template:Val (estimated to the nearest thousand), Template:Val (to the nearest hundred), Template:Val (to the nearest ten), or Template:Val (to the unit).

Uncertainty

  • Where the degree of uncertainty is not given in the source (or is unimportant for the article's purposes) round to an appropriate number of significant digits. The number of digits presented should usually be conservative; for instance, an estimated number of speakers of a language is unlikely to be accurate beyond two or three digits, even if the source is a census or other formal count reporting far more digits. The {{undue precision}} template may be added to figures which appear to be overprecise.
  • Do not use "approximately" with numbers that have simply been rounded, as this is misleading. For example, a measurement of "40 km" would normally be understood to refer to a distance closer to 40 km than to 30 or 50 km (that is, within 40 Template:Plusmn 5 km), while "approximately 40 km" would suggest a greater uncertainty than this, such as 20–60 km.
  • Where the uncertainty has been calculated and is relevant, it can be written various ways:
Template:In5Template:In5Template:XtTemplate:Nbsp Markup:Template:Nbsp{{val|1.534|0.35|e=23|u=m}}
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt (not used with scientific notation)Template:Nbsp Markup:Template:Nbsp{{val|12.34|u=m2}}{{nbsp}}{{plusmn}}{{nbsp}}5%
Template:In5Template:In5Template:XtTemplate:Nbsp Markup:Template:Nbsp{{val|15.34|+0.43|-0.23|e=23|u=m}}
Template:In5Template:In5Template:Xt (value Template:Val, uncertainty in the 48)Template:Nbsp Markup:Template:Nbsp{{val|1.604|(48)|e=-4|u=J}}}}

Units of measurement

Shortcuts:

Which units to use

Science-related articles

UK engineering-related articles

  • In UK engineering-related articles, including all bridges and tunnels: generally use the system of units that the topic was drawn-up in, whether metric or imperial. Provide conversions where appropriate.
  • Road distances and speeds are an exception to this: use imperial units with a metric conversion.

Other articles

For other articles, Wikipedia has adopted a system of writing a "main" quantity followed by a conversion in parentheses (see Unit conversions below).

  • In non-science US-related articles: the main quantity is generally expressed in US customary units (Template:Xt).
  • In non-science and non-engineering UK-related articles: the main quantity is generally expressed in metric units (Template:Xt), but imperial units are still used as the main units in some contexts, including:[8]
    • miles, miles per hour, and fuel consumption in miles per imperial gallon;
    • feet/inches and stones/pounds for personal height and weight;
    • imperial pints for draught beer/cider and bottled milk.
    • hands for horses and most other equines
  • All other articles: the main unit is generally an SI unit or a non-SI unit officially accepted for use with the SI.

How to present quantities

  • Nominal and defined quantities should be given in the original units first, even if this makes the article inconsistent: for example, Template:Xt (The focus is on the change of units, not on the 3.6% increase.)
  • Quantities should be accompanied by a proper citation of the source using a method described at the style guide for citation.
  • In cases where the primary units in the article are different from the primary units in the source:
    • Ensure that the precision of the converted quantity in the article appropriately matches the precision of the quantity from the source.
    • Consider quoting the source quantity in the citation, particularly when the source only provides one system of units.
    • In some cases it may be useful to avoid this by taking the unit used by the source as primary.

SI standard

  • SI units are written according to the SI standard unless otherwise specified in this Manual of Style (dates and numbers). For example see American spelling.
  • Non-SI units in tables 6, 7, 8, and 9 of the SI brochure are written according to the SI standard unless otherwise specified in this Manual of Style (dates and numbers). For example see guidance on litre.
  • Non-SI units mentioned elsewhere in the SI brochure are written according to the SI standard unless otherwise specified in this Manual of Style (dates and numbers). For example see Percentages.

Unit conversions

Shortcuts:

Where English-speaking countries use different units for the same quantity, follow the "primary" quantity with a conversion in parentheses. This enables more readers to understand the quantity. Examples: Template:Xt; Template:Xt.

  • With imperial units which are not also US customary units, double conversions can be useful: Template:Xt
  • Generally, conversions to and from metric units and US or imperial units should be provided, except:
    • When inserting a conversion would make a common or linked expression awkward (Template:Xt).
    • When units are part of the subject of a topic—nautical miles in articles about the history of nautical law, SI units in scientific articles, yards in articles about American football—it can be excessive to provide conversions every time a unit occurs. It could be best to note that this topic will use the units (possibly giving the conversion factor to another familiar unit in a parenthetical note or a footnote), and link the first occurrence of each unit but not give a conversion every time it occurs.
  • Converted quantity values should use a level of precision similar to that of the source quantity value, so Template:Xt, not Template:!xt. However, small numbers may need to be converted to a greater level of precision where rounding would cause a significant distortion, so Template:Xt, not Template:!xt.
  • Category:Conversion templates can be used to convert and format many common units, including {{convert}}, which includes non-breaking spaces.
  • In a direct quotation, always keep the source units.
    • Conversions required for quantities cited within direct quotations should appear within square brackets in the quote.
    • Alternatively, you can annotate an obscure use of units (e.g. Template:Xt) with a footnote that provides conversion in standard modern units, rather than changing the text of the quotation. See the style guide for citation, footnoting and citing sources.

Conversion errors

Conversion errors may occur in general reports, so use the primary sources or the most authoritative sources available. This can help avoid rounding errors, like this: a general report stated that the Eurostar is designed for speeds of "186 mph (299 km/h)". However, the actual design speed was 300 km/h. (The error crept in because the original speed had been converted to 186 mph and then back to km/h.) When common conversion factors are given as quantities, this is a clue that there may be conversion problems. For example, if a number of moons are given estimated diameters in increments of 16 km or 6 miles (implied precision ±0.5 km or mi), it is likely that the estimates in the primary source were in increments of a less-precise 10 miles or 10 km (implied precision ±5 miles or km).

See uncertainty in data above.

Straightforward and accurate conversion may not be possible for loose estimates. For example, if the diameter of a moon is estimated to be 1  miles to within an order of magnitude, any simple conversion to kilometers would introduce a significant loss of accuracy or a gross change in precision. That is because an order-of-magnitude estimate of 10 miles implies a possible range of ≈ 3–30 miles, which would be ≈ 5–50 km. A secondary source will commonly convert such an estimate to a specious 16 km.

Unit names and symbols

Unit names and symbols should follow the practice of reliable sources; the following guidelines may be helpful:

Conventions

  • In prose, unit names should be given in full if used only a few times, but symbols may be used when a unit (especially one with a long name) is used repeatedly (spelling out the first useTemplate:Snd Template:Xt). Certain unit names (e.g. Template:Xt) need never be written in full unless required stylistically: Template:Xt
  • Where space is limited, such as in tables, infoboxes, parenthetical notes, and mathematical formulas, unit symbols are preferable.
  • Units unfamiliar to general readers should be presented as a name-symbol pair: Template:Xt
  • Ranges use unspaced en dashes if only one unit symbol is used at the end (e.g. Template:Xt), and spaced en dashes if two symbols are used (e.g. Template:Xt); ranges in prose can be specified using either unit symbol or unit names, and units can be stated either after both numerical values or after the last (e.g. Template:Xt, Template:Xt, Template:Xt and Template:Xt are all acceptable).
  • Length-width-heightTemplate:Ndashtype dimensions may use the multiplication sign or by.
Unit names
  • Unit names are common nouns. Write them in lower case except where: common nouns take a capital; otherwise specified in the SI brochure; otherwise specified in this manual of style.
  • When unit names are combined by multiplication, separate them with a hyphen or a space (e.g. Template:Xt or Template:Xt). The plural is formed by pluralising the last unit name (e.g. Template:Xt).
    • When units of torque or energy are formed by multiplication of a unit of force with a unit of length, distinguish these by putting the force unit first for torque (e.g. Template:Xt or Template:Xt) and the length unit first for energy (e.g. Template:Xt or Template:Xt).
  • When unit names are combined by division, separate them with per (e.g. Template:Xt, not Template:!xt). The plural is formed by pluralising the unit preceding the per (e.g. Template:Xt).
  • When they form a compound adjective, values and unit names should be separated by a hyphen: for example, Template:Xt.
American spelling

American spellings of unit names should be used on pages written in American English. See "Specific units" section.

Unit symbols

Quantities of bytes and bits

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Shortcut:

In quantities of bits and bytes, the prefixes kilo (symbol k or K), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T), etc. are ambiguous. They may be based on a decimal system (like the standard SI prefixes), meaning 103, 106, 109, 1012, etc., or they may be based on a binary system, meaning 210, 220, 230, 240, etc. The binary meanings are more commonly used in relation to solid-state memory (such as RAM), while the decimal meanings are more common for data transmission rates, disk storage and in theoretical calculations in modern academic textbooks.

Prefixes for multiples of
bits (b) or bytes (B)
Decimal
Value Metric
1000 k kilo
10002 M mega
10003 G giga
10004 T tera
10005 P peta
10006 E exa
10007 Z zetta
10008 Y yotta
Binary
Value JEDEC IEC
1024 K kilo Ki kibi
10242 M mega Mi mebi
10243 G giga Gi gibi
10244 - - Ti tebi
10245 - - Pi pebi
10246 - - Ei exbi
10247 - - Zi zebi
10248 - - Yi yobi

Follow these recommendations when using these prefixes in Wikipedia articles:

  • Following the SI standard, a lower-case Template:Xt should be used for "kilo-" whenever it means 1000 in computing contexts, whereas a capital Template:Xt should be used instead to indicate the binary prefix for 1024 according to JEDEC. (If, under the exceptions detailed further below, the article otherwise uses IEC prefixes for binary units, use Template:Xt instead).
  • Do not assume that the binary or decimal meaning of prefixes will be obvious to everyone. Explicitly specify the meaning of k and K as well as the primary meaning of M, G, T, etc. in an article ({{BDprefix}} is a convenient helper). Consistency within each article is desirable, but the need for consistency may be balanced with other considerations.
  • The definition most relevant to the article should be chosen as primary for that article, e.g. specify a binary definition in an article on RAM, decimal definition in an article on hard drives, bit rates, and a binary definition for Windows file sizes, despite files usually being stored on hard drives.
  • Where consistency is not possible, specify wherever there is a deviation from the primary definition.
  • Disambiguation should be shown in bytes or bits, with clear indication of whether in binary or decimal base. There is no preference in the way to indicate the number of bytes and bits, but the notation style should be consistent within an article. Acceptable examples include:
    Template:Xt
    Template:Xt
    Template:Xt
  • Avoid inconsistent combinations such as Template:!xt. Footnotes, such as those seen in Power Macintosh 5500, may be used for disambiguation.
  • Unless explicitly stated otherwise, one byte is eight bits (see History of byte).

The IEC prefixes kibi-, mebi-, gibi-, etc. (symbols Ki, Mi, Gi, etc.) are rarely used, even in technical articles (see Complete rewrite of Units of Measurements (June 2008)), so are generally not to be used except under the following circumstances:

  • when the article is on a topic where the majority of cited sources use the IEC prefixes,
  • when directly quoting a source that uses the IEC prefixes,
  • in articles specifically about or explicitly discussing the IEC prefixes,
  • when an article uses both, binary and decimal units intermixed and no primary usage can be determined with certainty, or converting all other occurrences of units into the primary unit would be misleading or lose necessary precision, or declaring the actual meaning of a unit on each occurrence would be impractical.

Wikipedia follows common practice regarding bytes and other data traditionally quantified using binary prefixes (e.g. mega- and kilo-, meaning 220 and 210 respectively) and their unit symbols (e.g. MB and KB). Despite the IEC's 1998 International Standard creating several new binary prefixes (e.g. mebi-, kibi-) to distinguish the meaning of the decimal SI prefixes (e.g. mega- and kilo-, meaning 106 and 103 respectively) from the binary ones, and the subsequent incorporation of these IEC prefixes into the International System of Quantities (ISQ), consensus on Wikipedia in computing-related contexts currently favours the retention of the more familiar but ambiguous units "KB", "MB", "GB", "TB", "PB", "EB", etc. over use of unambiguous IEC binary prefixes. Use Template:Xt, not Template:!xt.

Specific units

Group Name Symbol Comment
Length
foot
foot per second
Template:Xt
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
hand Template:Xt or Template:Xt Equivalent to Template:Convert; used in measurement of horses. A dot followed by additional inches specifies intermediate heights.Template:Clarify
knot Template:Xt (not Template:!xt, Template:!xt)
metre
meter (U.S.)
Template:Xt
micron Template:Xt
Template:!xt (deprecated)
Markup: &mu;mTemplate:Nbsp Link to micrometre (for which micron is a synonym) on first use.
mile
mile per hour
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
In nautical and aeronautical contexts use Template:Xt rather than mile to avoid confusion with nautical mile.
nautical mile Template:Xt or Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
Volume cubic centimetre
cubic centimeter (U.S.)
Template:Xt Markup: cm<sup>3</sup>
Template:Xt Non-SI symbol used for certain engine displacements; link to cubic centimetre on first use.
imperial fluid ounce
imperial fluid pint
imperial fluid quart
imperial gallon
US fluid ounce
US fluid pint
US fluid quart
US gallon
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
US or imperial/imp must be specified; fluid/fl must be specified (except withTemplate:Nbspgallon).[upper-alpha 1]
cubic foot
cubic foot per second
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
Write Template:Xt or Template:Xt, not Template:!xt.
litre
liter (U.S.)
Template:Xt or Template:Xt The symbol l in isolation (i.e. not in such forms as ml) is easily mistaken for the digit 1.
Mass
carat Template:Xt The metric carat, 200 mg (0.007055 oz), is used for measurement of gemstones and pearls.
long ton
short ton
Template:Xt
Template:Xt
Spell out in full.
pound per square inch Template:Xt
tonne
metric ton (U.S.)
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt, Template:!xt)
troy ounce
troy pound
Template:Xt
????
t or troy must be specified. Articles about precious metals, black powder, and gemstones should always specify whether ounces and pounds are avoirdupois or troy.
Time
year Template:Xt Only with an SI prefix (Template:Xt)
Information bit Template:Xt (not Template:!xt, Template:!xt)
byte Template:Xt or Template:Xt (not Template:!xt, Template:!xt)
bit per second Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
byte per second Template:Xt or Template:Xt
(not Template:!xt, Template:!xt)
Angle
arcminute Template:Xt Markup: &prime;Template:Nbsp (not apostrophe/Template:Zwspsingle quoteTemplate:NbspTemplate:!xt). No space between numerals and symbol (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt)
arcsecond Template:Xt Markup: &Prime;Template:Nbsp (not double-quoteTemplate:NbspTemplate:!xt). No space between numerals and symbol (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt)
degree Template:Xt Markup: &deg;Template:Nbsp (not masculine ordinal Template:!xt or ring Template:!xtTemplate:Thinsp). No space between numerals and symbol (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt)
Temperature degree Template:Xt Markup: &deg;. Nonbreaking space ({{nbsp}}) between numerals and symbol (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt; Template:Xt, not Template:!xt)
degree Celsius
not degree centigrade
Template:Xt (not Template:!xt)
Purity
carat or karat Template:Xt or Template:Xt A measure of purity for gold alloys
Energy
gram calorie
small calorie
Template:Xt SI prefixes may be used with cal but not with Cal (Template:Xt but not Template:!xt). The rules for common nouns apply to the Template:Xt.Template:Clarify Write Template:Xt, not Template:!xt.Template:Clarify
kilogram calorie
large calorie
Template:Xt
not calorie (deprecated) In science and technology calorie usually refers to the gram calorie; in dietetics it may refer to the kilogram calorie. To avoid confusion SI units (gram calorie, kilogram calorie) should be used instead.
  1. Without fluid, ounce is ambiguous (versus avoirdupois ounce or troy ounce), and pint or quart is ambiguous (versus US dry pint or US dry quart).

Currencies

Shortcuts:

{{#invoke:see also|seealso}}

Choice of currency

Formatting

  • Use the full abbreviation of a currency on its first appearance (e.g. Template:Xt); subsequent occurrences can use just the symbol of the currency (e.g. Template:Xt), unless this would be unclear. The exception to this is in articles related entirely to EU-, UK- or US-related topics, in which the first occurrence may also be shortened (Template:Xt, Template:Xt or Template:Xt respectively), unless this would be unclear. When there are different currencies using the same symbol in an article, use the full abbreviation (e.g. Template:Xt for the US dollar and Template:Xt for the Australian dollar, rather than just Template:Xt), unless the currency which is meant is clear from the context.
  • Do not place a currency symbol after the value (e.g. Template:!xt, Template:!xt, Template:!xt), unless the symbol is normally written as such. Do not write Template:!xt or Template:!xt.
  • Currency abbreviations that come before the number are unspaced if they consist of or end in a symbol (Template:Xt, Template:Xt), and spaced if alphabetic (Template:Xt).
  • If there is no common English abbreviation or symbol, use the ISO 4217 standard.
  • Format ranges with one, rather than two, currency signifiers (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt).
  • Conversions of less familiar currencies may be provided in terms of more familiar currencies, such as the US dollar, euro or pound sterling using an appropriately chosen rate – this is often not the most recent exchange rate. Conversions should be in parentheses after the original currency, rounding to avoid excess or false precision (one or two significant digits are usually enough, as the exchange rates can vary significantly), with at least the year given as a rough point of conversion rate reference; e.g. Template:Xt, not Template:!xt.
  • For obsolete currencies, provide if possible an equivalent, formatted as a conversion, in the modern replacement currency (e.g. decimal pounds for historical pre-decimal pounds-and-shillings figures), or at least a US-dollar equivalent as a default in cases where there is no modern equivalent.
  • When possible, always link the first occurrence of lesser-known currencies (Template:Xt).
  • The names of currencies, currency subdivisions, coins and banknotes should not be capitalised except where normal capitalisation rules require this (for example, at the start of a sentence).
  • When called on to use a plural with the euro, use the standard English plurals and not the "legislative" plurals (Template:Xt, not Template:!xt). In adjectival use, no plural form is generally used, but rather a hyphenated form: (Template:Xt).
  • The pound sterling is represented by the Template:Xt symbol, with one horizontal bar. The double-barred Template:!xt symbol is ambiguous, as it has also been used for the Italian lira and other currencies. For non-British currencies that use pounds or a pound symbol (e.g. the Irish pound, IR£) use the symbol conventionally preferred for that currency.

Common mathematical symbols

Shortcut:
See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics.
  • For a negative sign or subtraction operator, use a minus sign (). You can input a minus sign by clicking on it in the insert box beneath the edit window (located between the ± and × signs) or by either keying in &minus;. Do not use an en dash () or an em dash (), and do not use a hyphen (-) unless writing code.
  • For a multiplication sign, use ×, which can be input by clicking on it in the edit toolbox under the edit window or by keying in &times;. However, the unspaced letter x is the substitute for by in such terms as 4x4.
Common mathematical symbols
Name Operation Other use Symbol CER NCR Unicode As binary operator
(e.g. 1 + 1)
As unary operator
(e.g. +1)
Plus sign Addition Positive sign + &#43; U+002B Spaced Unspaced
Minus sign Subtraction Negative sign &minus; &#8722; U+2212 Spaced Unspaced
Plus-minus sign Addition or subtraction Positive or negative sign ± &plusmn; &#177; U+00B1 Spaced Unspaced
Minus-plus sign Subtraction or addition Negative or positive sign &#8723; U+2213 Spaced Unspaced
Multiplication sign, cross Multiplication, vector product × &times; &#215; U+00D7 Spaced
Division sign, obelus Division ÷ &divide; &#247; U+00F7 Spaced
Equal sign Equation = &#61; U+003D Spaced
Not equal sign Non-equation &ne; &#8800; U+2260 Spaced
Approximate sign Approximation &asymp; &#8776; U+2248 Spaced
Less than sign Inequation < &lt; &#60; U+3C Spaced
Less than or equal to Inequation &le; &#8804; U+2264 Spaced
Greater than sign Inequation > &gt; &#62; U+3E Spaced
Greater than or equal to Inequation &ge; &#8805; U+2265 Spaced

Geographical coordinates

Shortcuts:
For draft guidance on, and examples of, coordinates for linear features, see Wikipedia:WikiProject Geographical coordinates/Linear.
Quick guide:

Template:Coord how-to

Geographical coordinates on Earth should be entered using a template to standardise the format and to provide a link to maps of the coordinates. As long as the templates are adhered to, a robot performs the functions automatically.

First, obtain the coordinates. Avoid excessive precision.

Two types of template are available:

  • {{coord}} offers users a choice of display format through user styles, emits a Geo microformat, and is recognised (in the title position) by the "nearby" feature of Wikipedia's mobile apps and by external partners such as Google (-Maps and -Earth) and Yahoo.
  • Infoboxes such as {{Infobox settlement}}, which automatically emit {{Coord}}.

Depending on the form of the coordinates, the following formats are available.

For just degrees (including decimal values):

Template:Tlc

For degrees/minutes:

Template:Tlc

For degrees/minutes/seconds:

Template:Tlc

where:

For example:

The city of Oslo, located at 59° 55′ N, 10° 44′ E, enter:

{{coord|59|55|N|10|44|E}}—which becomes Template:Coord

For a country, like Botswana, less precision is appropriate:

{{coord|22|S|24|E}}—which becomes Template:Coord

Higher levels of precision are obtained by using seconds:

{{coord|33|56|24|N|118|24|00|W}}—which becomes Template:Coord

Coordinates can be entered as decimal values

{{coord|33.94|S|118.40|W}}—which becomes Template:Coord

Increasing or decreasing the number of decimal places controls the precision. Trailing zeros should be used as needed to ensure that both values have the same level of precision.

London Heathrow Airport, Amsterdam, Jan Mayen and Mount Baker are examples of articles that contain geographical coordinates.

Generally, the larger the object being mapped, the less precise the coordinates should be. For example, if just giving the location of a city, precision greater than 100 meters is not needed unless specifying a particular point in the city, for example the central administrative building. Specific buildings or other objects of similar size would justify precisions down to 10 meters or even one meter in some cases (1′′ ~15 m to 30 m, 0.0001° ~5.6 m to 10 m).

The final field, following the E/W, is available for specification of attributes, such as type, region and scale.

When adding coordinates, please remove the {{coord missing}} tag from the article, if present.

For more information, see the geographical coordinates WikiProject.

Templates other than {{coord}} should use the following variable names for coordinates: Template:Var, Template:Var, Template:Var, Template:Var, Template:Var, Template:Var, Template:Var, Template:Var.

See also

Notes

  1. Wikipedia:Requests for arbitration/Jguk#Principles, Wikipedia:Requests for arbitration/jguk 2#Principles, and Wikipedia:Requests for arbitration/Sortan#Principles
  2. See WP:CITESTYLE.
  3. See MOS:COMMA.
  4. All-numeric Template:Small caps dates might be assumed to follow the ISO 8601 standard, which mandates the Gregorian calendar.
  5. These formats cannot be distinguished on sight, because there are usages in which 03-04-2007 represents MarchTemplate:Nbsp4, and other usages in which they represent AprilTemplate:Nbsp3. In contrast there is no common usage in which 2007-04-03 represents anything other than AprilTemplate:Nbsp3. For consistency the designation of Template:Small caps as the only acceptable all-numeric format applies even where the set of dates involved (e.g. in a particular article) all have "day" greater than 12, so that e.g. 04-13-2007 unambiguously represents AprilTemplate:Nbsp13.
  6. This change was made on August 24, 2008, on the basis of this archived discussion. It was ratified in two December 2008 RfCs Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers/Three proposals for change to MOSNUM and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers/Date Linking RFC
  7. Substitutes for the minus sign as en dash (Template:!xt) and non-breaking hyphen (Template:!xt) are incorrect not only because these characters are different (and thus hinder automatic processing), but also because of slight differences in vertical positions—the minus sign should have the same alignment as the plus sign (+). Also, in most fonts, dashes are thinner. Dashes were seldom inserted in place of minus signs due to mistakes or misunderstanding the fact that the minus sign has a distinct code point. So, if one sees a symbol which looks like a minus sign in the place of a minus sign in Wikipedia, then one may not be sure that it is encoded correctly.
  8. If there is disagreement about the main units used in a UK-related article, discuss the matter on the article talk-page, at MOSNUM talk, or both. If consensus cannot be reached, refer to historically stable versions of the article and retain the units used in these as the main units. Note the style guides of British publications such as Times Online (under "Metric").
  9. This definition is consistent with all units of measure mentioned in the 8th edition of the SI brochure and with all units of measure catalogued in EU directive 80/181/EEC

Template:Style wide