Multiplicity (mathematics)

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The Kværner-process or Kværner carbon black & hydrogen process (CB&H)[1] is a method, developed in the 1980s by Aker Solutions of Norway, for the production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons (CnHm), such as methane, natural gas and biogas.


SEM image of carbon nanocones (maximum diameter ~1 micrometer) produced by pyrolysis of heavy oil in the Kvaerner carbon black and hydrogen process.

The hydrocarbons are separated into their components, carbon and hydrogen in a plasma burner (see Plasma, Electric arc) at around 1600 C.


The biggest advantage over all other known reformation methods (steam reforming, partial oxidation, etc.) is that the natural gas is transformed 100% into pure carbon and hydrogen in an energy-efficient way. Of the available energy of the feed, approximately 48% is contained in the hydrogen, 40% is contained in activated carbon and 10% in superheated steam.

Plasma variation

A variation of this process using plasma arc waste disposal was presented in 2009. Methane and natural gas is converted to hydrogen, heat and carbon using a plasma converter.[2]

See also