# Ordered graph

An **ordered graph** is a graph with a total order over its nodes.

In an ordered graph, the parents of a node are the nodes that are joined to it and precede it in the ordering. More precisely, is a parent of in the ordered graph if and . The width of a node is the number of its parents, and the width of an ordered graph is the maximal width of its nodes.

The **induced graph** of an ordered graph is obtained by adding some edges to an ordering graph, using the method outlined below. The **induced width** of an ordered graph is the width of its induced graph.

Given an ordered graph, its induced graph is another ordered graph obtained by joining some pairs of nodes that are both parents of another node. In particular, nodes are considered in turn according to the ordering, from last to first. For each node, if two of its parents are not joined by an edge, that edge is added. In other words, when considering node , if both and are parents of it and are not joined by an edge, the edge is added to the graph. Since the parents of a node are always connected with each other, the induced graph is always chordal.

As an example, the induced graph of an ordered graph is calculated. The ordering is represented by the position of its nodes in the figures: a is the last node and d is the first.

The original graph. | Edge added considering the parents of | Edge added considering the parents of |

Node is considered first. Its parents are and , as they are both joined to and both precede in the ordering. Since they are not joined by an edge, one is added.

Node is considered second. While this node only has as a parent in the original graph, it also has as a parent in the partially built induced graph. Indeed, is joined to and also precede in the ordering. As a result, an edge joining and is added.

Considering does not produce any change, as this node has no parents.

Processing nodes in order matters, as the introduced edges may create new parents, which are then relevant to the introduction of new edges. The following example shows that a different ordering produces a different induced graph of the same original graph. The ordering is the same as above but and are swapped.

Same graph, but the order of and is swapped | Graph after considering |

As in the previous case, both and are parents of . Therefore, an edge between them is added. According to the new order, the second node that is considered is . This node has only one parent (). Therefore, no new edge is added. The third considered node is . Its only parent is . Indeed, and are not joined this time. As a result, no new edge is introduced. Since has no parent as well, the final induced graph is the one above. This induced graph differs from the one produced by the previous ordering.

## See also

## References

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