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An electron and positron orbiting around their common centre of mass. This is a bound quantum state known as positronium.

Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium. The system is unstable: the two particles annihilate each other to produce two or three gamma-rays, depending on the relative spin states. The orbit and energy levels of the two particles are similar to that of the hydrogen atom (electron and proton). However, because of the reduced mass, the frequencies of the spectral lines are less than half of the corresponding hydrogen lines.


The ground state of positronium, like that of hydrogen, has two possible configurations depending on the relative orientations of the spins of the electron and the positron.

The singlet state,Template:SubatomicParticle, with antiparallel spins (S = 0, Ms = 0) is known as para-positronium (p-Ps). It has a mean lifetime of 125 picoseconds and decays preferentially into two gamma rays with energy of Template:Val each (in the center-of-mass frame). Detection of these photons allows to reconstruct the vertex of the decay and is used in the positron-emission tomography. Para-positronium can decay into any even number of photons (2, 4, 6, ...), but the probability quickly decreases with the number: the branching ratio for decay into 4 photons is Template:Val.[1]

Para-positronium lifetime in vacuum is[1]

The triplet state,3S1, with parallel spins (S = 1, Ms = −1, 0, 1) is known as ortho-positronium (o-Ps). It has a mean lifetime of Template:Val,[2] and the leading decay is three gammas. Other modes of decay are negligible; for instance, the five-photons mode has branching ratio of ~Template:Val.[3]

Ortho-positronium lifetime in vacuum is[1]

Positronium in the 2S state is metastable having a lifetime of Template:Val against annihilation.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} The positronium created in such an excited state will quickly cascade down to the ground state, where annihilation will occur more quickly.


Measurements of these lifetimes and energy levels, have been used in precision tests of quantum electrodynamics, confirming QED predictions to high precision.[1][4][5] Annihilation can proceed via a number of channels, each producing gamma rays with total energy of Template:Val (sum of the electron and positron mass-energy), usually 2 or 3, with up to 5 recorded.

The annihilation into a neutrino–antineutrino pair is also possible, but the probability is predicted to be negligible. The branching ratio for o-Ps decay for this channel is Template:Val (electron neutrino–antineutrino pair) and Template:Val (for other flavour)[3] in predictions based on the Standard Model, but it can be increased by non-standard neutrino properties, like relatively high magnetic moment. The experimental upper limits on branching ratio for this decay (as well as for a decay into any "invisible" particles) are <Template:Val for p-Ps and <Template:Val for o-Ps.[6]

Energy levels


While precise calculation of positronium energy levels uses the Bethe–Salpeter equation or the Breit equation, the similarity between positronium and hydrogen allows a rough estimate. In this approximation, the energy levels are different because of a different effective mass, m*, in the energy equation (see electron energy levels for a derivation)

is the charge magnitude of the electron (same as the positron),
is Planck's constant,
is the electric constant (otherwise known as the permittivity of free space),
is the reduced mass,
where and are, respectively, the mass of the electron and the positron (which are the same by definition as antiparticles).

Thus, for positronium, its reduced mass only differs from the electron by a factor of 2. This causes the energy levels to also roughly be half of what they are for the hydrogen atom.

So finally, the energy levels of positronium are given by

The lowest energy level of positronium (n = 1) is −6.8 electronvolts (eV). The next level is Template:Val. The negative sign implies a bound state. Positronium can also be considered by the Dirac equation; Two point particles with a Coulomb interaction can be exactly separated in the (relativistic) center-of-momentum frame and the resulting ground-state energy has been obtained very accurately using finite element methods of J. Shertzer.[7] The Dirac equation whose Hamiltonian comprises two Dirac particles and a static Coulomb potential is not relativistically invariant. But if one adds the (or , where is the fine-structure constant) terms, where n = 1,2..., then the result is relativistically invariant. Only the leading term is included. The contribution is the Breit term; workers rarely go to because at one has the Lamb shift, which requires quantum electrodynamics).[7]


Croatian scientist Stjepan Mohorovičić predicted the existence of positronium in a 1934 article published in Astronomische Nachrichten, in which he called the it "electrum".[8] Other sources credit Carl Anderson as having predicted its existence in 1932 while at Caltech.[9] It was experimentally discovered by Martin Deutsch at MIT in 1951 and became known as positronium.[9] Many subsequent experiments have precisly measured its properties and verified predictions of quantum electrodynamics (QED). There was a discrepancy known as the ortho-positronium lifetime puzzle that persisted for some time, but was eventually resolved with further calculations and measurements.[10]

Exotic compounds

Molecular bonding was predicted for positronium.[11] Molecules of positronium hydride (PsH) can be made.[12] Positronium can also form a cyanide and can form bonds with halogens or lithium.[13]

The first observation of di-positronium molecules—molecules consisting of two positronium atoms—was reported on 12 September 2007 by David Cassidy and Allen Mills from University of California at Riverside.[14][15]

Natural occurrence

Positronium in high energy states has been predicted to be the dominant form of atomic matter in the universe in the far future, if proton decay is a reality.[16]

See also


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  16. A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolution of astrophysical objects, Fred C. Adams and Gregory Laughlin, Reviews of Modern Physics 69, #2 (April 1997), pp. 337–372. Template:Bibcode. Template:Hide in printTemplate:Only in print Template:Arxiv.

External links

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