# Ramanujan graph

In spectral graph theory, a Ramanujan graph, named after Srinivasa Ramanujan, is a regular graph whose spectral gap is almost as large as possible (see extremal graph theory). Such graphs are excellent spectral expanders.

Examples of Ramanujan graphs include the clique, the biclique $K_{n,n}$ , and the Petersen graph. As Murty's survey paper notes, Ramanujan graphs "fuse diverse branches of pure mathematics, namely, number theory, representation theory, and algebraic geometry". As observed by Toshikazu Sunada, a regular graph is Ramanujan if and only if its Ihara zeta function satisfies an analog of the Riemann hypothesis.

## Definition

$\lambda (G)=\max _{|\lambda _{i}| A Ramanujan graph is characterized as a regular graph whose Ihara zeta function satisfies an analogue of the Riemann Hypothesis.

## Extremality of Ramanujan graphs

$\lambda _{1}\geq 2{\sqrt {d-1}}-{\frac {2{\sqrt {d-1}}-1}{\lfloor m/2\rfloor }}.$ $\lim _{n\to \infty }\inf _{G\in {\mathcal {G}}_{n}^{d}}\lambda (G)\geq 2{\sqrt {d-1}}.$ ## Constructions

Constructions of Ramanujan graphs are often algebraic. Lubotzky, Phillips and Sarnak show how to construct an infinite family of p +1-regular Ramanujan graphs, whenever p ≡ 1 (mod 4) is a prime. Their proof uses the Ramanujan conjecture, which led to the name of Ramanujan graphs. Morgenstern extended the construction of Lubotzky, Phillips and Sarnak to all prime powers.