# Rational number

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In mathematics, a **rational number** is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction *p*/*q* of two integers, *p* and *q*, with the denominator *q* not equal to zero.^{[1]} Since *q* may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number. The set of all rational numbers is usually denoted by a boldface **Q** (or blackboard bold , Unicode ℚ); it was thus denoted in 1895 by Peano after *quoziente*, Italian for "quotient".

The decimal expansion of a rational number always either terminates after a finite number of digits or begins to repeat the same finite sequence of digits over and over. Moreover, any repeating or terminating decimal represents a rational number. These statements hold true not just for base 10, but also for binary, hexadecimal, or any other integer base.

A real number that is not rational is called irrational. Irrational numbers include [[square root of 2|Template:Sqrt]], π, *e*, and *φ*. The decimal expansion of an irrational number continues without repeating. Since the set of rational numbers is countable, and the set of real numbers is uncountable, almost all real numbers are irrational.^{[1]}

The rational numbers can be formally defined as the equivalence classes of the quotient set (**Z** × (**Z** \ {0})) / ~, where the cartesian product **Z** × (**Z** \ {0}) is the set of all ordered pairs (*m*,*n*) where *m* and *n* are integers, *n* is not 0 (*n* ≠ 0), and "~" is the equivalence relation defined by (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}) ~ (*m*_{2},*n*_{2}) if, and only if, *m*_{1}*n*_{2} − *m*_{2}*n*_{1} = 0.

In abstract algebra, the rational numbers together with certain operations of addition and multiplication form the archetypical field of characteristic zero. As such, it is characterized as having no proper subfield or, alternatively, being the field of fractions for the ring of integers. Finite extensions of **Q** are called algebraic number fields, and the algebraic closure of **Q** is the field of algebraic numbers.^{[2]}

In mathematical analysis, the rational numbers form a dense subset of the real numbers. The real numbers can be constructed from the rational numbers by completion, using Cauchy sequences, Dedekind cuts, or infinite decimals.

Zero divided by any other integer equals zero; therefore, zero is a rational number (but division by zero is undefined).

## Terminology

The term *rational* in reference to the set **Q** refers to the fact that a rational number represents a *ratio* of two integers. In mathematics, the adjective *rational* often means that the underlying field considered is the field **Q** of rational numbers. Rational polynomial usually, and most correctly, means a polynomial with rational coefficients, also called a "polynomial over the rationals". However, rational function does *not* mean the underlying field is the rational numbers, and a rational algebraic curve is *not* an algebraic curve with rational coefficients.

## Arithmetic

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### Embedding of integers

Any integer *n* can be expressed as the rational number *n*/1.

### Equality

### Ordering

Where both denominators are positive:

If either denominator is negative, the fractions must first be converted into equivalent forms with positive denominators, through the equations:

and

### Addition

Two fractions are added as follows:

### Subtraction

### Multiplication

The rule for multiplication is:

### Division

Where *c* ≠ 0:

Note that division is equivalent to multiplying by the reciprocal of the divisor fraction:

### Inverse

Additive and multiplicative inverses exist in the rational numbers:

### Exponentiation to integer power

If *n* is a non-negative integer, then

and (if *a* ≠ 0):

## Continued fraction representation

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A **finite continued fraction** is an expression such as

where *a _{n}* are integers. Every rational number

*a*/

*b*has two closely related expressions as a finite continued fraction, whose coefficients

*a*can be determined by applying the Euclidean algorithm to (

_{n}*a*,

*b*).

## Formal construction

Mathematically we may construct the rational numbers as equivalence classes of ordered pairs of integers (*m*,*n*), with *n* ≠ 0. This space of equivalence classes is the quotient space (**Z** × (**Z** \ {0})) / ~, where (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}) ~ (*m*_{2},*n*_{2}) if, and only if, *m*_{1}*n*_{2} − *m*_{2}*n*_{1} = 0. We can define addition and multiplication of these pairs with the following rules:

and, if *m*_{2} ≠ 0, division by

The equivalence relation (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}) ~ (*m*_{2},*n*_{2}) if, and only if, *m*_{1}*n*_{2} − *m*_{2}*n*_{1} = 0 is a congruence relation, i.e. it is compatible with the addition and multiplication defined above, and we may define **Q** to be the quotient set (**Z** × (**Z** \ {0})) / ~, i.e. we identify two pairs (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}) and (*m*_{2},*n*_{2}) if they are equivalent in the above sense. (This construction can be carried out in any integral domain: see field of fractions.) We denote by [(*m*_{1},*n*_{1})] the equivalence class containing (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}). If (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}) ~ (*m*_{2},*n*_{2}) then, by definition, (*m*_{1},*n*_{1}) belongs to [(*m*_{2},*n*_{2})] and (*m*_{2},*n*_{2}) belongs to [(*m*_{1},*n*_{1})]; in this case we can write [(*m*_{1},*n*_{1})] = [(*m*_{2},*n*_{2})]. Given any equivalence class [(*m*,*n*)] there are a countably infinite number of representation, since

The canonical choice for [(*m*,*n*)] is chosen so that *n* is positive and gcd(*m*,*n*) = 1, i.e. *m* and *n* share no common factors, i.e. *m* and *n* are coprime. For example, we would write [(1,2)] instead of [(2,4)] or [(−12,−24)], even though [(1,2)] = [(2,4)] = [(−12,−24)].

We can also define a total order on **Q**. Let ∧ be the *and*-symbol and ∨ be the *or*-symbol. We say that [(*m*_{1},*n*_{1})] ≤ [(*m*_{2},*n*_{2})] if:

The integers may be considered to be rational numbers by the embedding that maps *m* to [(*m*,1)].

## Properties

The set **Q**, together with the addition and multiplication operations shown above, forms a field, the field of fractions of the integers **Z**.

The rationals are the smallest field with characteristic zero: every other field of characteristic zero contains a copy of **Q**. The rational numbers are therefore the prime field for characteristic zero.

The algebraic closure of **Q**, i.e. the field of roots of rational polynomials, is the algebraic numbers.

The set of all rational numbers is countable. Since the set of all real numbers is uncountable, we say that almost all real numbers are irrational, in the sense of Lebesgue measure, i.e. the set of rational numbers is a null set.

The rationals are a densely ordered set: between any two rationals, there sits another one, and, therefore, infinitely many other ones. For example, for any two fractions such that

Any totally ordered set which is countable, dense (in the above sense), and has no least or greatest element is order isomorphic to the rational numbers.

## Real numbers and topological properties

The rationals are a dense subset of the real numbers: every real number has rational numbers arbitrarily close to it. A related property is that rational numbers are the only numbers with finite expansions as regular continued fractions.

By virtue of their order, the rationals carry an order topology. The rational numbers, as a subspace of the real numbers, also carry a subspace topology. The rational numbers form a metric space by using the absolute difference metric *d*(*x*,*y*) = |*x* − *y*|, and this yields a third topology on **Q**. All three topologies coincide and turn the rationals into a topological field. The rational numbers are an important example of a space which is not locally compact. The rationals are characterized topologically as the unique countable metrizable space without isolated points. The space is also totally disconnected. The rational numbers do not form a complete metric space; the real numbers are the completion of **Q** under the metric *d*(*x*,*y*) = |*x* − *y*|, above.

*p*-adic numbers

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In addition to the absolute value metric mentioned above, there are other metrics which turn **Q** into a topological field:

Let *p* be a prime number and for any non-zero integer *a*, let |*a*|_{p} = *p*^{−n}, where *p ^{n}* is the highest power of

*p*dividing

*a*.

In addition set |0|_{p} = 0. For any rational number *a*/*b*, we set |*a*/*b*|_{p} = |*a*|_{p} / |*b*|_{p}.

Then *d _{p}*(

*x*,

*y*) = |

*x*−

*y*|

_{p}defines a metric on

**Q**.

The metric space (**Q**,*d _{p}*) is not complete, and its completion is the

*p*-adic number field

**Q**

_{p}. Ostrowski's theorem states that any non-trivial absolute value on the rational numbers

**Q**is equivalent to either the usual real absolute value or a

*p*-adic absolute value.

## See also

## References

- ↑
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## External links

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