Reference desk archive/March 2004 II

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Telman Horloo

I have a friend in London named Telman Horloo who said he used to be a famous pop singer in Londolia when he was very young. I think this would have been in the late 1980s and early 1990s, he was lead singer for a pop group but I can't remember the name - a very short word. Does anyone know who I'm talking about and if so, do you know where I can get some of his CDs? Please email me

That name doesn't get any google hits. RickK | Talk 01:46, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Is the spelling correct? The "Telman" first name sounds suspiciously like "Tilman" or "Tillmann". But that doesn't give Google hits, either. -- till we *) 19:10, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)


I have a dictaphone and ediphone with some wax cylinders. Marketable? call me (330-352-6467) email (rackridge@earthlink,net) --Harry

Dude! This is not eBay!



My name is Jeff DeMars, and I saw through your website that you have a pretty detailed bio of J. Michael Straczynski. I was wondering if you guys had any contact info for him that you were allowed to give out. I would really like to get in touch with him to get him to autograph one of his works for my best friend who is a huge fan. Well let me know if you can help me in any way.

Thanks for your time Jeff

Hi Jeff. Straczynski regularly posts to Usenet using the email address I'd say including his unmunged address in Usenet headers constitutes an open invitation to use it ... (it may be that he's using it entirely as a spam trap and never reads that account; I don't know for sure that's not the case but he does repeat it in his sig, which suggests to me that it's real) --Bth 15:42, 10 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Also, remember not to send him any history ideas, he will positively hate you if you do. --eiaccb 17:26, 10 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I can confirm that the is a live address which JMS checks; I've gotten a reply there in the past when seeking permission to quote him in another work I was creating. Fair warning, though, he tends not to respond to "fannish" requests. -- Seth Ilys 17:45, 10 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Large Investments

I'm looking for information about large investments, or banking opportunities that offer higher intrest rates with more capital. It seems to me that if you have more money you can make more money, in general. Buying in bulk for example is an easy way to get a higher return for you dollar. I understand there are ISAs in the UK that offer higher interest rates for clients that have larger sums of money invested. What other opportunities are there for people with high net worths? You can just respond if you want to right here, I don't have an email set up atm.

UK ISAs (Individual Savings Accounts) are a tax-free investment allowing people to save up to £3000 cash a year for 3 years (optionally plus a similar amount in shares), so that's not particularly larger sum of money these days. However, we are not authorised under the Financial Services Act to give financial advice -- you would be best advised to contact a professional financial advisor. Arwel 20:44, 10 Mar 2004 (UTC)

vinho verde

Can anyone tell me what grape varieties are found in vinho verde? You can reach me at Thank you, Steve.

  • There appears to be a huge number of varietes used. There is a full catalogue with details on the official site. I have emailed this answer too. akaDruid 17:34, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Do you assist with locating poems?

Do you assist with locating specific poems and poets? I'm not sure if this is the Web site to look for a poem by an unknown (to me) author. I only have a few lines from the poem itself to help in a search. This is by a renowned poet, possibly Sergeant (sp.), but I'm not sure. I have been unsuccessful in a search I conducted at me local library. Please advise me accordingly. Thank you. Grant Johnson

We're open to most questions, although there are no guarentees that we'll be able to help you. Post the lines you know and we'll see if we can help. →Raul654 00:30, Mar 11, 2004 (UTC)
I have had luck with an user-contributed online poetry compilation that is quite extensive, and has a lot of famous poems and some cursory analysis. You can browse poems by author, title, theme, first line, or perform a regular google site search. The link is: The Wondering Minstrels. - DropDeadGorgias (talk) 22:44, Mar 18, 2004 (UTC)
Libraries are usually pretty good at this, as they generally have access to guides to poetry available only by subscription (you may need to try a larger library, or a more-cooperative-in-a-better-mood-or-more-skilled librarian). If not, there are tips at the Buffalo library website about finding poems. -- Nunh-huh 22:55, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)

An error on this webpage

I just wanted to make you aware of an error on a webpage that bears your name. It falsely states that the interval of a minor sixth can be remembered and recognized in the song "My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean," when in fact, this song begins with a major sixth. A way to remember the sound of a minor sixth is with the song "Love Story" or with the 3rd and 4th note's of Joplin's "The Entertainer." Here is the URL: As there is not a link on this site to edit the page, I am expecting that you will edit the content appropriately so that it agrees with truth and doesn't mislead unsuspecting music students. Thanks.

Knowledgegeek is using Wikipedia articles for their own site (which we give blanket permission to do if certain requirements are met), and they have an older version of that particular article. The correction was made at our article on Ear training on February 1st! --Robert Merkel 03:22, 11 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I'm sure Robert and I both thank you, however, for being kind enough to let us know! If we hadn't fixed it already, we'd certainly want to do so immediately. Thanks for taking the time to contact us, Jwrosenzweig 23:34, 11 Mar 2004 (UTC)

U-tern movie

(moved from the village pump - moink)

HELP!!! U-tern.

The question are;

1- What is the most conflict presented in the film and justified why?
2- Identified the protagonist and describe the 3 mains character 
3- Describe the time and setting how element influence the conflict?
4- The antagonist is the adversary or opponent of the protagonist.
5- Where the climax lies on the story?
6- what is the message that the author?
You're not going to find people here to do your homework for you. For information about the film, try [1] moink 03:02, 11 Mar 2004 (UTC)
You're probably taking about the movie "U-Turn". I'd second the recommendation for checking out (Although by now, your homework assignment's probably late.) MK 00:42, 28 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Movie to Video Game and Literary Rights

I and a few friends made a movie a while back which has become moderately popular. The story on which the movie was made was written by someone who does not belong to our group. We own the rights to the movie and keep all of the money it earns. The author of the story on which the movie is based receives no part of the income generated by the movie. We now want to create a video game based on the movie. The author of the story tells us we can not do that because she owns the literary rights to the story. Is this correct? The video game will be based on the movie we made, which we own. Can anyone shed light on our dilemma? Mark Wilson @

See Wikipedia:Legal_disclaimer. IANAL, but my guess is that this would depend entirely on the details of the contract you signed to get the rights to make the movie. Compared to the cost of developing a video game (or making a movie, for that matter), a few hours of an IP lawyer's time is pretty cheap. --Robert Merkel 04:01, 12 Mar 2004 (UTC)

The perfect model for hitting a hockey ball

Hi, My name is Christie Bray and i am currently studing Physical Education in Archbishop Blanch School in Liverpool. For my GCSE coursework i have to know the perfect model for hitting a hockey ball. I have beein trying to research this but so far i have not been sucessful. I would be extremly grateful for any information you may be able to give me. Thanks, Christie Bray.

Email -

I've mailed Christie and asked her to clarify her question. --Robert Merkel 04:44, 12 Mar 2004 (UTC)
At the Dirac delta function page it states that "in calculating the dynamics of a baseball being hit by a bat, approximating the force of the bat hitting the baseball by a delta function can be a useful trick," but doesn't elaborate much on how exactly to do that, maybe it would be a good starting point for your answer -- 18:49, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Yes, if that's what Christie is referring to, you can consider the momentum imparted from the hockey stick to the ball as transferring over an infinitesimal amount of time, that is, a momentum impulse. This model of course is unrealistic, since it assumes an infinite amount of force. A more detailed model includes deformations of the stick and the ball, but in most cases the impulse model works just fine. I think many of us are confused by your use of the word perfect, Christie. No model we currently have available is a perfect representation of reality. moink 19:15, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I talked to Christie - she was looking for details of the correct technique for hitting the ball, which I'm trying to locate for her. --Robert Merkel 21:26, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Ahhh. Now that I can't help with. moink 21:31, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Congressional Fisticuffs

I saw on the news recently that some members of South Korea's Parliament got into a shoving match over Roh's impeachment. I remember also seeing such roughhousing in other countries' parliaments as well, thanks to the magic of television. Has the United States Congress ever got this physical over legislature in, say, the last century?

While I'm at it, can "parliament" as a generic term also refer to the US Congress? I've never heard Congress referred to as such... Garrett Albright 00:17, 13 Mar 2004 (UTC)

(May 1856) Following a speech about bleeding Kansas, Charles Sumner was attacked in his office by SC. representative Preston Brooks, who beat him with a cane. →Raul654 00:39, Mar 13, 2004 (UTC)
Raul is entirely right, but I think it should be added that this particular beating was so ferocious that Sumner was left unconscious and bleeding badly, and that Sumner spent three years essentially as an invalid, recovering his health. This goes far beyond the kind of rough-housing you were asking about. :) And Congress is not considered a parliament -- I knew why once, but have forgotten. Jwrosenzweig 19:20, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I'm pretty sure Henry Gonzalez once got involved in a physical altercation on the House floor, but I don't remember details. Might be worth someone trying to research. (& I see we don't have an article on him. He'd definitely be worth one if anyone here does Texas politics.) -- Jmabel 03:10, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Thanks for that. I found [2] after a quick search, which mentions it very briefly. Garrett Albright 20:12, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Also, not quite fisticuffs, but there have been other occasions of violence at Congress--the Capital shooting rampage of a few years ago and in 1954 "four Puerto Rican nationalists in the visitors' gallery of the House opened fire on the 143 lawmakers. Five congressmen were wounded, one of them seriously."[3] That article has a couple of other occasions. jengod 01:14, Mar 17, 2004 (UTC)~
U.S. Capitol shooting incident (1954) jengod 09:47, Mar 31, 2004 (UTC)

Protection against ghosts

My son (now 4) has always had a connection with those I am unable to connect with. As a younger child we were able to get him to talk to these people (often explained by him with human characteristics) after speaking to them he often came to the conclusion they were not going to harm him. He would then just coexist with them. Every home with lived in has had its own spirits he has connected with. We are again in a new home and he had no connection for some time but now he is seeing animals that frighten him. Dogs mostly. He states they come out of the wall. I was begining to think he was just entering a nightmare phase until I heard them myself. Dogs barking visiously in the house in the middle of the night.

I have only recently began investigating this on a serious level so please forgive me if I have used any inappropriate terms. I am looking for something I can do to protect him from these spirits. One philosopy I have run into is to roll a candle in honey and burn it at a level above our heads.

Please forward any thoughts or suggestions.

Thank you

Wikipedia does not make any prescriptions or suggestions as an encyclopedia, but you seem in need of some help or reassurance. I will say that there are some who believe that exorcism is a legitimate practice that drives out evil spirits. I am sure there are many other folk practices such as the candle-burning you describe, but as you seem to be searching for answers, all I can say is that I know some in your situation contact a priest or minister who performs exorcisms. This is in no way a guarantee that such practices are effective, just a thought I had when I read your question, and realized that it might lie here unanswered a long time. I hope this is of some help to you, and that you have a peaceful home again soon. Jwrosenzweig 04:33, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I know about these things from a professional standpoint. If you wish to consult me on a professional basis, please e-mail me from the bottom of my talk page, since I have no way from your message to contact you. heidimo 20:46, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Is parafin digestible?

Is the wax they sell for canning and for adding to some candy recipies digestible or is it like fiber in that it just passes?

Your question has been asked at Talk:Paraffin. Keep a watch on it for responses or clarifications. Jay 17:21, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)

resonator placed under piano strings to increase volume

...and the question is...?


I have the following information but am unable to secure addtional information ie more details. A count of Tankerville John Born at Tankerville Castle in 1040 (apparently Tankkerville Castle existed in Normandy France) and an Earl of Tankerville John born in 1070 in England or lived in England. Their decendents appear to be Chamberlains.

Any information???

The English Earldom of Tankerville was created by Henry V as one of several Anglo-Norman Earldoms. He conferred it 31 January 1418/9, on Sir John Grey, K.G. The other comtés in Normandy granted by Henry V were: Harcourt, Perche, Aumale, Eu, and Longueville. Tancarville/Tanquerville had previously been held by Guillaume de Melun, Count of Tancarville, and by Jacques de Harcourt and Marguerite his wife, daughter of said Count). It is possible that Detlev Schwennicke's Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge. [European Family Trees: Family Trees for the History of European States, New Series.] First series by Wilhelm Karl, Prinz zu Isenburg, continued second series by Frank, Baron Freytag von Loringhoven. 16 vols. Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt , 1978-1995, may contain further information on the Melun's: you'd have to check this at a library that holds this book. - Nunh-huh 23:12, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Unidentified Fruit

I don't know whether this should be here or the reference desk but does anyone know what this is:

Thanks. Secretlondon 17:59, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC) (moved from Village Pump)

Looks like eggplant to me. They're usually purple, but according to the article, they can be white too. Garrett Albright 20:05, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Thanks. Secretlondon 20:25, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I agree, I'd call them albino Indian eggplants. Indian eggplants are that shape and size (roughly like an actual egg) and a much ligher shade of purple than European ones, but I've never actually seen white ones before. Mkweise 23:32, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Definitely eggplant. I've seen 'em for sale and called eggplants. And that's why they were named eggplant: eggshaped & white. moink 00:36, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Old picuture found

My mother recently passed away and among her things was a picture that belonged to my grandparents. It looks as though it might be a lithograph of a Church with a statue standing in front of the church with a religious figure at the top. It is signed by Rudolf Vost and on the left side on the bottom is also hand written Munichen. Can you tell me anything about this? What the Church might be and the statue? There is an automobile in the picture which could date it to the early 20's- Any help you can give me would be appreciated.

Thank you,

Could it be München (Munich in German)? Secretlondon 23:39, 14 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Trying to locate statement by Plank that there's no matter, only energy and that behind everything is a concious, aware mind that is the matrix to tying everything together.

I'm trying to locate the wonderful statement by Max Von Plank that there's no matter, only energy and that behind everything is a concious, aware mind that is the "matrix" tying everything together.

You sure he wasn't referring to the Wikipedia? <grin>
30 seconds of Google searching tells me that it is "There is no matter as such! All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force... We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent Mind. This Mind is the Matrix of all matter." [4] But I had the unfair advantage of knowing how to spell his name: Max Planck not Max Von Plank. Note however that is probably not the best source of authoratative science, you might want to look into it further: [5] -- Tim Starling 04:57, Mar 15, 2004 (UTC)
I tried hard to find a primary publication or speech by Planck for that, but you only find sites that use that quote for their own ends. If you just want the wording variations, just do the Google thing, but if you want to know what was underlying the reason Planck might have said it, then I can't find anything to tie it directly to that gentleman. Seems like an overreach of what science knows to me, but then, IANAPhysicist (but I can recommend a good book if you want me too). - Bevo 23:06, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)
It's not scientific, but scientists can have spiritualistic beliefs just like anyone. However, given the lack of a citation in sites returned by Google, you have to wonder if the quote is for real. -- Tim Starling 00:02, Mar 19, 2004 (UTC)
The German version (presumably the original) is also abundantly quoted on the Web without citation, but several pages say that Planck said this in a talk entitled "Das Wesen der Materie" (the essence/nature/character of matter) he gave in 1944 in Florence: "Als Physiker sage ich Ihnen nach meinen Erforschungen des Atoms dieses: es gibt keine Materie an sich! Alle Materie entsteht und besteht nur durch eigene Kraft, welche die Atomteilchen in Schwingung bringt und sie zum winzigsten Sonnensystem des Atoms zusammenhält So müssen wir hinter dieser Kraft einen bewußten intelligenten Geist annehmen. Dieser Geist ist der Urgrund aller Materie." I have a book with talks on philosophical matters by Planck; if you need more details I could dig it out and investigate further. Fpahl 07:52, 5 Apr 2004 (UTC)

All Blacks question


Does anyone know who has played the most number of matches for New Zealand against Australia in Bledisloe Cup matches. My email is

Many thanks for anyone who can help me out.

  • The player with most appearances for New Zealand against Australia was D.I.Campese(1982-1996)[6]. Don't know how many were Bledisloe Cup matches. A list of All Blacks records is here. I have sent this by email too. akaDruid 17:24, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Hmmm. David Campese played for Australia against New Zealand. --Robert Merkel 05:02, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Doh! I can't read straight. I can't find a figure for the reverse anywhere - although the link above has lots of other records. akaDruid 09:55, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)


hello my name is terri and i am researching the famous painter and would like to ask if he has paintings in national trust?. im sure i read this somehwere but since cant find where so it would be most usefull to me. then if this is so what does that mean and do?? being in national trust lol im not smart i know lol. thanks for your time terru

Hi. Terri. I'm not clear what you mean by national trust, in this context, but you can look at the Joshua Reynolds collection at the National Portrait Gallery (United Kingdom) here. I would also look at the external links on Wikipedia's article on Joshua Reynolds Mintguy (T) 12:22, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
While I don't know anything specific about Sir Joshua Reynolds, I'd be surprised if some of his paintings aren't now owned by the National Trust. The National Trust (in England and Wales) and National Trust for Scotland are organisations to which wealthy people can bequeathe valuable paintings or other property as a way of avoiding Inheritance Tax. The NT then makes the property available for viewing so anybody can go and see it. Many millions of people in the UK are members of the NT (and so get reduced admission charges) -- indeed, I think it has the greatest number of members of any voluntary organisation in the UK. Look at any Ordnance Survey map for places marked "NT" or "NTS". Arwel 16:23, 15 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Saltram House near Plymouth has a number: [7] user:sjc


Is this Tartarus similar to a Dungeon, as unlike the flames and torment for sinners in Hades, Hell? A place for the Sons of Earth to await their doom. A Dungeon environment. That is my candid question(?) Is this Tartarus a Dungeon type of environment, or not? Do you have a candid answer> Jacque

Thank you for information

  • In my understanding, Tartarus is the lowest point of Hades and is the equivalant of the biblical Hell. Souls in Tartarus are subject to damnation/torment etc. It is not a waiting place. Erebus may be considered a waiting place, as it is the point of Hades before the river Acheron. Hope this helps - I will also email my answer. akaDruid 15:45, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)
    • Has this information been emailed or is it just posted here? If no one emailed it, I'll do it. →Raul654 16:49, Mar 16, 2004 (UTC)
      • I emailed it too. akaDruid 17:01, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Largest Towns

I was looking at the Stockport page the other day, when I noticed its large population. Are there any other towns in England (or even the UK) that are larger, but aren't cities or part of a city? Dmn 12:55, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Northampton claims be the largest town in England[8], since it is the largest district that is not part of unitary authority (Stockport being part of the unitary authority of Greater Manchester). Stockport is a metropolitan district which ironically has the same status for local government as slightly larger Sandwell (smaller in the 2001 census), which does not claim to be a town. So as a direct answer, Stockport is the largest are in England which, while claiming to be a town, which has not had 'city' status bestowed upon it. 'City' is largely meaningless anyway, since there are some tiny areas which are technically cities (e.g. Ely, Wells and the City of London). Hope that makes sense! akaDruid 16:46, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)

In Britain, and perhaps other places, the status of 'City' is not related to size. The presence of a Cathedral or University bestows the title, not population size. Mark Richards 21:12, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Yes, the presence of a cathedral makes a city, but also town can be upgraded to cities by decree. --Auximines 16:49, 1 Apr 2004 (UTC)
Not quite. Firstly, Roman Catholic cathedrals don't count when making a cathedral city; secondly there are some small places which have Anglican cathedrals but aren't cities - St David's (pop. about 1600) and St Asaph (pop. around 4000) for example -- St Asaph applied for city status in the 2000 round of applications. Arwel 18:28, 1 Apr 2004 (UTC)
FYI both St. David's and St. Asaph describe themselves as cities. See [9] and [10] --Auximines 13:58, 2 Apr 2004 (UTC)

Linear Dependence

can any set of three vectors in R (2) space be linearly independent? Why or why not?

Nope. The number of linearly independent vectors is always less than or equal to the dimension of the space. moink 17:02, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)
As to why, I've been trying to think about whether or not I could come up with a mathematical proof for you, but I don't think I can. And the reason is, I believe, that you're actually asking about a definition. I believe the word dimension is actually defined in vector mathematics as the number of linearly independent vectors required to form a basis for the vector space. And every basis has the same number of vectors, and any other vector in that space is by definition a linear combination of the basis vectors.
But let's talk about it more concretely. Picture a 2D vector space, say, a nice little piece of paper in front of you. Put two vectors on it. Either those two vectors are linearly independent, or, err, they're not. Okay if they're not that doesn't help us at all in showing anything about linearly independent vectors. So let's assume they're linearly independent. Okay, now try to put another vector on there that isn't a linear combination of the other two. You can't do it, can you? It's always going to be in the space of the two vectors. You have to come out of the page, that is, into the third dimension, to be able to add a third linearly independent vector. moink 17:21, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC)
If you can follow mathspeak, the Wikipedia article on this is dimension theorem for vector spaces.

Video of stage version of My Fair Lady

Does anyone know of a video of the Julie Andrews /Rex Harrison stage version of My Fair Lady? I am in the play and want to see not the movie version but the original stage version?

Manning Rubin

  • You are probably out of luck on this. It's certainly not commercially available. The collection of filmed Broadway performances (the Theatre on Film and Tape Archive, known as TOFT) has been preserving more recent plays, but probably has not got a tape of Julie Andrews in My Fair Lady. If you want to double check, you could email the Billy Rose Theatre Collection at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, or check with a librarian there during working hours via the contact methods on this webpage: The Original Cast Recording (audio, not video) is of course available, and listening to this may be the closest you can get to experiencing Julie Andrew's performance. - Nunh-huh 00:07, 22 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Need the Chinese Calendar for years 2005 and 2006

Hi All -

Came upon this site as I was googling for a Chinese calendar. I'm trying to get a copy of the entire Chinese calendar for years 2005 and 2006 - but have not had much success. Can someone please help???

Thanks! Moody

There are some detailed Chinese calendars here. You can query individual dates but there doesn't appear to be a way to retrieve entire calenders. has a chinese calander with a month to a page - 2005 starts here, 2006 starts here.
Try this link for some more.
Hope this helps. akaDruid 10:18, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)
You can also download a software called LunarCal at - it is Charityware and calculates the chinese calendars for many years. andy 10:34, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Railways Worldwide e-mail list

(moved from Wikipedia:Village pump -moink 20:46, 16 Mar 2004 (UTC))

Dear Madam or Sir, I'm a conductor from the Swiss Railways and I'm a collector of Railwayshats from all the World. I have over 300 Railwayshats from all the World. Unfortunately I haven't all E-Mail addresses from Railways Companies on the World. Can you send me a list with there? I would be very very happy to have this for continue with my collection. I hope, that you can help me and you write me in the next days back. Thank you very very much for your help, your time and your trouble. Best regards from Switzerland and have a nice time: Marcello Malisan Conductor Swiss Railways

We don't have access to a list of email addresses, but you can start at List of railway companies here on Wikipedia, then enter the names of these companies into a search engine. If you include the word "official" in your search, you're likely to come up with the company's official website. Look there for a "contact" link, which should provide you with email addresses, phone numbers and mail addresses. Some sites may even have a store where you can purchase what you wish.
As always, if you see that there is information missing from our list or our individual railway articles, we invite you to add your knowledge! Perhaps you could have a look at Swiss railroads, for a start.... Best of luck to you, Catherine 20:42, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Movie about girl named Dot in Australia?

This is killing me. Maybe some Aussie pedians can help. Is there a movie out there that's part live action, part animation that's about a little girl named Dot who gets lost in the Australian Outback and is eventually befriended (I think) by a bunch of marisupials. I remember being alternately frightened and fascinated by it as a kid, but I can't figure out what it was... jengod 01:03, Mar 17, 2004 (UTC)

Dot and the Kangaroo. It was based on a children's book of the same name, written in 1899. I seem to remember having an updated version of the book when I was young. Here's a link about the TV series: The book is PD, you can download this PDF file and read it. -- Tim Starling 01:27, Mar 17, 2004 (UTC)
Thank you! I had no idea it was a book! Now if only we can get someone to write the Australian literature article. :) jengod 09:44, Mar 31, 2004 (UTC)

Country within a country

There are 3 countries that lie completely surrounded by other countries... 1) Vatican 2)Lichinstein (SP) Can anyone tell me the third?

Liechtenstein, as you can see from this map, is in fact surrounded by two countries, Austria and Switzerland. Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa entirely. I will think about a third possibility -- the real question is, what do you consider "surrounded by another country"? Gambia is surrounded by Senegal but has access to the ocean....probably not surrounded by your standard? Monaco, again, surrounded by France but accesses the Mediterranean Sea, so not fully surrounded. I don't know if there are, in fact, three. Jwrosenzweig 17:43, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Easy. San Marino is completely surrounded by Italy. →Raul654 17:48, Mar 17, 2004 (UTC)
(editconflict--was posting this as Raul posted the above) Got it! San Marino, in addition to the Vatican City and Lesotho, is what you want. There's your three. Thanks for the mental exercise. Jwrosenzweig 17:49, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)
San Marino, Vatican City, and Lesotho are the three we list in enclave, which is a good article to point you to. -- Nunh-huh 17:50, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC) (another edit conflict!)

Thank you for helping with the countries. I thought there might be a page devoted to this very question - just didn't know where to look. Thanks again. This was an extra bonus question on an exam for a class I took at the Colorado School of Mines.

Silver Dollars - 1922

I am trying to locate a Silver Dollar for 1922. My mother claims there was nothing minted in this year due to economy?? Please inform me if such a coin exists. Maybe it is something to do with other elements e.g. nickel comprising and the "True Silver Dollar" .. just can't remember.

Are you talking about United States currency? If so, this page appears to indicate that there was a low relief silver dollar coin minted in 1922. I don't know any more on the subject -- it may have been rare, but it apparently exists. Jwrosenzweig 17:52, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Google search for "1922 Peace dollar" gives the following page [11]. With a circulation in excess of 51.7 million, I would't call it "rare". ;) As for its composition: 90% silver, 10% copper, fairly standard. Actually I may have one in my personal collection, but I'd need to look. --Dante Alighieri | Talk 18:34, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)
Again, assuming that your are discussing US currency, you can handily prove your mother wrong with the assistance of ebay. Here's a link to current auctions selling 1922 Peace dollars [12].
--Dante Alighieri | Talk 18:44, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)


Aigun Treaty was signed in the town of Aigun, China. However, I was unable to find any modern references to this town (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 was the most modern source available). Was it renamed? Does it even exist now? --Ezhiki 14:52, Mar 19, 2004 (UTC)

I can't find anything about "Aigun" as such, but the same town is also sometimes spelled "Aihun". This page claims that the modern town of Heihe (which does appear on modern maps, if they're of sufficient detail) was formerly known as Aihun, so I suppose it's probable that they're the same place. Couldn't guarantee it, though. -- Vardion 08:32, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Well, the location of the province the town is in shown on the map seems right. It would still be good to have more definite information about whether or not this is the same town, before making a link on the Aigun page. Thanks! --Ezhiki 14:52, Mar 19, 2004 (UTC)
Actually, having investigated more closely, it's possible that Aigun and Heihe are not exactly the same after all. This site says that Aigun is "about 31 kilometres" away from Heihe, and this site agrees. The official Heihe government website says that Aihui (ie, Aigun, Aihun, etc.) is a district within the city's territorial limits. Other sites, such as this one, simply list Aihui, Aigun, and Heihe as being identical. The whole situation seems somewhat confused, but I'd probably say that the relationship isn't simply one of renaming. Rather, I think that Aigun (old but small) has probably been absorbed or superceded by the newer/larger city of Heihe. How that helps the Aigun article, I don't know. -- Vardion 01:28, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I will move this discussion to the Aigun Talk page. I am not quite sure what else can be done, especially that Heihe article is non-existent. Thanks for your time and help anyway! --Ezhiki 17:28, Mar 22, 2004 (UTC)

Four color theorem

(moved from:Wikipedia:Village pump moink)

I believe I have proved this theorem incorrect, however I need varification. I created adjacent areas on a plane, and have found that the least amount of colors that can be used is five. I am unsure whether the map must be an actual geographical map, or if it can be theoretical. If you could clairify this for me, i would be most appreciative. Thank you-- Laura

Your previous posting of this question has been moved to Talk:Four color theorem. Please also see that article that for reasons why in real-world maps four colors might not be enough due to non-contiguous countries (e.g. Alaska and main USA), but as the theorem is for theoretical maps these aren't counterexamples for the theorem. andy 15:14, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)

quality system decoumentation

(moved from Wikipedia:Village pump. moink 22:48, 17 Mar 2004 (UTC)

i wanna know about ur quality system decoumentation,could u tell me?

Wikipedia is not ISO 9000 certified and we don't intend to make it so. Some quality issues are discussed at Wikipedia:Replies to common objections. (BTW this could have probably been left at the pump.) -- Tim Starling 22:54, Mar 17, 2004 (UTC)
What does the OP need to know? This is too vague to know how to answer. Maybe the link to ISO 9000 is what was wanted... - Bevo 23:00, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Allan Quartermain in 'League of Extraordinary Gentleman'

how can Allan Quartermain be a hunter in 'League of Extraordinary Gentleman' if in history he was in fact the hunted? if anyone knows the answer i would appreciate it. thanks,Dorian

Authorial fiat. LXG is a work of fiction, and indeed Allan Quartermain is a fictional character, so an author/scriptwriter is able to do anything he likes within the limits of copyright law! Arwel 22:03, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Sense and Reference vs. Intension and Extension

Several of the philosophy of language articles insist that the former concept should not be confused with the latter. If this is so, could someone please give some explicit criteria by which not to confuse them? Is the only difference that the former pair is for proper names while the latter is for kind terms? --Ryguasu 02:34, 18 Mar 2004 (UTC)


My father and grandfather were born in Chrzanow, Poland. My father's name was Chaim Blitzer, and my grandfather's name was Leibush Blitzer. I am a writer and have published articles about Chrzanow. I would like to find out more about my ancestors from Chrzanow, and would like the names and addresses of Chrzanow officials who could look up my family names for me. Any information about Chrzanow--would be appreciated--and my e-mail address is:

Perhaps someone editing the pages at Chrzanow or Lesser Poland Voivodship could help you out. The former page is a stub, I'm sure you could use your skills to bring it to good shape ! Jay 18:19, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC)

pls answer the question (Gymnosperms)

what is the most advance among the gymnosperms (moved from Wikipedia:Village pump)

Try starting at gymnosperm.Garrett Albright 04:41, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC)

There is not really a rational answer to that question since all of the taxa have advanced in different directions. WormRunner | Talk 06:00, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC)

English to Arabic translation

How can i convert english writting into arabic writting?

Could you be more specific? Do you want to be able to type an Arabic phrase on your standard English keyboard and have it show up in the Arabic alphabet? (If so, what type of computer are you using?) Or do you want to actually translate an English phrase to Arabic? (If so, you would do best to learn Arabic first.) Garrett Albright 02:46, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)


I need to compile a list of pornstars categorized by their religion. Where can I find this kind of info? 141 18:21, 19 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Seeing that many adult performers operate their own websites which I guess give opportunities to contact them, you could simply try contacting them and asking. Don't be surprised if they'd prefer not to comment. --Robert Merkel 23:46, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC)
This must be some new definition of the word 'need' that I was not previously aware of. Mark Richards 21:16, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)
LOL! Hee. Ha. Heehee. jengod 09:51, Mar 31, 2004 (UTC)

question for Marx scholars

would appreciate help to track down a comment Marx made in Capital where he said there comes a point beyond which the further politizisation of money becomes redundant. could really use this for an essay, but need to be able to reference it. can you pin-point it in Capital?

Your question has been asked at Talk:Das Kapital and Talk:Karl Marx. Keep a watch on it for responses or clarifications. Jay 08:00, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)


How do I set my preferences for looking at Wikipedia pages?

I answered you on your talk page. moink 02:38, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Check my math

I'm looking for a closed form expression for

The expression I've found is

Have I got this right? If so, is there a way to simplify the expression? -- Cyan 03:02, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Not according to Maple.
> latex (f);
> latex(g);
> evalf (f(1,0,log(2)));

> evalf (g(1,0,log(2)));
Lupin 10:14, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Damn. I go back, try again. -- Cyan 23:08, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

You were missing some factors of two – the cosine is half the sum of the exponentials. I think the correct expression is

I don't know how to simplify it, other than as

which I presume is where you got it from. Fpahl 15:24, 4 Apr 2004 (UTC)

Numerical checks verify Fpahl's expression. Thanks, Fpahl! -- Cyan 15:21, 5 Apr 2004 (UTC)

Joining the Nigerian Air Force

pls sir . i am interested in becoming an air force man, sir how can i be one , this is my e mail id ( Sir i will be very glad if i am answered. thanks , franklim

5 seconds of using Google found the Nigerian air force website, which gives an email address,, for enquiring about joining the air force. Note: I have emailed this person with the information. --Robert Merkel 23:46, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC)

(Moved this from Nigerian Air Force - Rlandmann 11:02, 20 Mar 2004 (UTC))

Raining fish / frogs etc

Do we have a page about the infamous occurences in history when it has allegedly rained fish / frogs etc? If so, at what title? Evercat 02:28, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC)

It seems like the information belongs at anomalous phenomenon, though it only briefly mentions that "stones which fell from the sky" were later explained as meteorites. You'd also think they might be mentioned at Charles Fort, but they don't seem to be. -- Nunh-huh 21:55, 22 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Well, I'm pretty sure such occurrences are actually true - albeit on a much smaller scale than generally reported in idle gossip. Particularly extreme weather formations can easily suck objects out of seas or lakes along with the water. As for where on Wikipedia such information would/should live, I'm not really sure... - IMSoP 00:26, 3 Apr 2004 (UTC)

Are Steward and Stadtholder different?

I wonder about the relation between the concepts of Governor, Steward and Stadtholder, and about their scope of usage in English.
--Ruhrjung 02:45, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC)

duke of lancaster?

Who is the current duke of lancaster?

There is no current Duke of Lancaster. More specifically, Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom is not the Duke of Lancaster, even though she is the recipient of the revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Dukedom of Lancaster merged with the Crown in 1399 and ceased to exist. It has never been granted as a peerage since then. -- Nunh-huh 22:48, 21 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Secretlondon- Regarding Rudolf Vost

Yes, Munichen was Munich's first name and was known as the city of Monks. It is one and the same. Thank you for your interest. I'm not sure how to add this on to my questions so I hope you see it. This is second try.

Can I freely translate the content available in one language into another language?

Can I also freely use the same pictures in another language?

If by your question you are asking whether you can translate content from one Wikipedia to another, the answer is yes. Generally, you can also share pictures between Wikipedias, though I believe some language Wikipedias have less permissive policy on fair use images. See Wikipedia:copyright.
Generally, questions about Wikipedia should be asked on the [[Wikipedia:Village Pump].--Robert Merkel 11:11, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Re; Please Help

(moved from Wikipedia:Village pump) moink 17:14, 22 Mar 2004 (UTC)

If you could please help me find the answer to a chem honors question I have to answer. What is the chemical composition of a personal desktop computer? and What is the chemical composition of te white powdered compond that is the phosphor on the inside of fluorescent lamps? Any help with these questions would be great. My e-mail address is Thanks phil

Your question about a computer is interesting. There are many chemical substances that make up a computer, not the least of which are polymers for the case and copper for many of the wires. However, the most important from a computer functioning point of view is silicon doped with other elements to make transistors, the building blocks of computer chips. moink 17:24, 22 Mar 2004 (UTC)
For your second question, from our article on fluorescent lamp, I find that various salts, called phosphors, are used for the lamps, including Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl):Sb3+,Mn2+, as well as those based on europium and terbium. Gentgeen 09:16, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)


(moved from Wikipedia:Village pump and reformatted for width. moink 04:41, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC))

Dear Sir,

My name is Richard Tan and I am a staunch supporter for the next US presidential Candidate for the coming US election to be held on Nov. 2, 2004.

The reason for me to request for such unusual question is I need the exact time to cast an accurate prediction on him and to offer some good advice using Chinese metaphysic, called the 4 Pillars of Destiny.

I am going to contribute in the form of article writting to certain feng shui magazines and website to attract more people to going to Kerry' s presidental campaign website.

Hope you can assist me in order to come up with an accurate and practical advice. Thanking you in anticipation.

Yours Sincerely

Richard Tan

I would advice writing to Kerry's campaign itself. Such a fact wouldn't be common knowledge, and could only be got from the source. If you want, Mr. Tan, I can approach his media people about the request, if you want me too. As a journalist, I may have a little more clout than just an average supporter. -- user:zanimum

Evolution of the human nose

What is the evolutionary rationale behind humans' pronounced noses as compared to say chimps and gorillas? Lupin 12:08, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Aboriginal H.sapiens live in a far more diverse range of climates than do other great apes. Humans native to arid, dusty places have (very approximately) longer nasal passages, which helps to humidify the inhaled air (and secondarily, longer nasal passages afford more room for more nasal hairs, which helps block sand and dust). -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 13:58, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Thanks! That convinced me... should this be added to nose? That's where I went looking for it originally. Lupin 17:56, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)
It should only be added if it can be attributed to a source, and qualified with language that properly represents the acceptance of that source among evolutionary theorists. Humans are also unique in their ability to selectively close their nasal passage or their oral passage from the throat, which provided the capacity for speech. The evolution of more pronounced nasal protrusions also correlates with development of hard right angles in the oral passage and in the neural structure of hominids. Further, the greater nasal passage found in hominids facilitates cooling of air, which is distinct from the cleaning functions of nasal passages. What's more, there need not be a distinct survival advantage - the shape of human noses could have resulted from purely subjective preferential selection in breeding. One must be careful in making authoritative statements about the advantages of long noses not to offend those hominids who born of geneologies with less pronounced noses. The elongated nose, as interpreted by oriental macrobiotic physiogomy may be related to eating foods rich in both proteins and in precursors of dopamine, both of which are associated with aggressive behavior. The jury is still out on the question of whether aggression offers an evolutionary advantage or hastens the extinction of a species. ~.~ (anon)

Genealogy of Caroline Heller (Hohenzollern family)

Caroline (Hohenzollern family) was born in 1819 in Braunsch, Prussia. She was disowned by her family when she married a poor shephard named Frederick Heller (born 1811 in Braunsch, Prussia). Caroline and Frederick had a son, Albert, who was born October 12, 1842. In 1861 the family moved to Washington Township, Beecher, Illinios, USA. I'm looking for information about Caroline's parents, grandparents, siblings, etc.

1970s cartoon about orphaned lion cub?

Jengod's question above (about Dot & the Kangaroo) prompted some dim rememberings from when I was very young as well. I remember an animated show about an orphaned lion cub who was cared for by other members of the jungle community -- a giraffe I remember for certain, although I'm sure all the usual jungle animals were there. The characters had large eyes and anime-style features, although this seems to come before Speed Racer. It would have been aired in Southern California in the early- to mid-1970s. Please help -- no one else I've described this to has any idea what I'm talking about, even the ones that remember the horror that was H.R. Pufnstuf....! -- Catherine 20:59, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Was it maybe Kimba the White Lion? moink 21:07, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)
That's it -- that's the one! It's very silly how happy this is making me, but I've wondered about this (in an idle, every-now-and-then sort of way) literally for YEARS! LOL -- thanks for the prompt and excellent service, Moink, yer my hero!!! Catherine 21:51, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)
If you would like to relive your childhood on a shiny plastic disc, Kimba is available in a DVD box set. See [13]. (You can find a better price by shopping around a bit.) Garrett Albright 23:25, 23 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Euler's number

I would like to know why the letter "e" was chosen to represent Euler's number. I can earn bonus points in my college algebra class by finding out the answer. --Vonetta 2241 23Mar04

You might try looking at our article on E (mathematical constant) also I put "euler's number" into google and found this site on the first page of results Study Works Online which contains the text
"Despite appearances, it is unlikely that Euler named the number after himself, even though it is still sometimes referred to as “Euler's number.” 1 As we will see in the first example, the number has a rightful claim to being the base for exponential functions, and so it has been suggested that Euler meant e to stand for “exponential.” The truth may be even more prosaic: Euler was using the letter “a” in some of his other mathematical work, and “e” was the next vowel."
I hope this helps. theresa knott 12:55, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Suggestion for new Wiki

Where would I post an idea on Wikipedia for a new Wiki where the post would be in the correct place and recieve maximum exposure to those who could impliment such an idea?

If you want it to be taken seriously, post it to the mailing list. →Raul654 10:38, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)

hand with symbols

please help me i was watching the movie "the cell" and i saw a hand with various symbols in the fingers and palm and latin writing underneath and ive seen it before and i cant remember what it is called - please help me someone i need to know what its called-help.. it was on her pillow when she was smoking some pot watching that french movie about OM's

I haven't seen the movie but it sounds like some sort of palmistry chart. is it this sort of thing?. Otherwise it might be some sort of reflexology chart although that is more usually the foot rather than the hand. theresa knott 13:51, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

How I want a drink, ...

 How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics!
 How I want a drink, alcoholic of course, after the heavy chapters involving quantum mechanics!

Those two sentences to help remember the decimal sequences to π are attributed by various webpages to one of several individuals: George Polya, Martin Gardner and Issac Asimov. What's the true attribution? - Bevo 16:59, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

In his biography (It's Been a Good Life --- IE, the last one), Asimov claimed it as his. →Raul654 18:31, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)

Free DOS Fortran compiler

Can anyone recommend a good free Fortran 77 compiler to make a DOS program? I'm actually running Windows XP, and the code I'm wanting to compile is in Fortran IV (from 1958, written for the IBM 7090).

Thanks, moink 17:13, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

I refuse to answer based on the fact that there is no good reason that you should need to be doing that... ;) Actually, I have no idea whatsoever, I was just curious as to why on Earth you'd need to do that... --Dante Alighieri | Talk 18:53, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)
Well, uh, it's good code, though it's not well commented. It calculates the wave drag on a transonic or supersonic aircraft. It just happens to have been written in the 50s. I've compiled it using the gnu compiler for Unix. But right now I'm in the wrong city, and instead of being at my Linux box I'm using my husband's Windows machine. moink 19:04, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Correct me if I'm wrong, but isn't fortran backwards compatible? Wouldn't that code fine on a Fortran 90 compiler? →Raul654 19:10, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)
Sure it would. Do you have a free DOS Fortran 90 compiler I can use? moink 19:15, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Not personally. I've only dabbled in fortran. However, last time I did, I think I used one from →Raul654 19:21, Mar 24, 2004 (UTC)
(Posted via edit conflict, before above comments) The gnu compiler exists for windows, too. Install cygwin, and install the fortran compiler related packages in the Devel category. Think that would be gcc, gcc-g77 and gcc-mingw-g77. Compile with the -mno-cygwin option to create stand-alone programs. (Cygwin for Windows, not DOS, so not sure if this helps answer the question...) Κσυπ Cyp   19:21, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Thanks Cyp. I'm downloading it now. It sure is taking a long time. Thanks especially for the stand-alone compiler options. What I'm trying to do is actually quite odd, and if I were just plain running it I would ssh into Linux and do it. But I've got MATLAB code that writes the input file, calls the executable, and parses the output file for me, and unfortunately Project Athena doesn't let me run MATLAB remotely. So I'm running MATLAB for Windows here. moink 19:43, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Thanks everyone, I've actually changed my mind. Cygwin's download kept failing, and after telling Cyp I couldn't get MATLAB to run remotely I tried again. Apparently I'm just an idiot and it runs fine remotely as long as I do it properly. Sorry for wasting everyone's time. moink 19:53, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)

southern temperature record patterns

moved from Wikipedia:Village pump

has there been a pattern in the southern hemisphere temperature records over the last 100 years and if so what is this pattern. Your help is appreciated.

You might want to try Global warming, Global warming controversy and Climate change as a start. Mark Richards 20:23, 24 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Or Historical temperature record (William M. Connolley 20:01, 2004 Mar 26 (UTC))

Speaker of the British House of Commons

Not sure if I'm posting this in the right place, but an anononymous user added information to this article which I think is incorect but I'm certain enough to remove it. See Talk:Speaker of the British House of Commons for more information. Saul Taylor 03:37, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Wikipedia Feedback & Kudos

Yes, why is there no obvious place to tell you folks what an amazing and beautiful thing you are doing here? It is badly needed as wikipedia is awe-inspiring, not to mention an invaluable resource. Thank you - this is an incredible project and it is greatly appreciated... 8-)


Wow - thanks. It's not often we hear praise like that, and it's greatly appreciated. →Raul654 07:16, Mar 25, 2004 (UTC)

Loose shoes

What does it mean when a person is said to prefer loose shoes?

In the earlier half of the century, a woman who wore open-toed shoes was said to be sexually "easy." Could this work in context? (In Japan, loose socks have the same connotation...) Garrett Albright 09:19, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

reader as murderer

Has any whodunnit been written in which the reader (not the writer) is the murderer?

If there's ever been a whodunnit about the murder of a tree, then the answer could be yes. Dysprosia 08:40, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
I cannot tell a lie; it was I, and my little axe. -- Cimon avaro 09:01, Mar 25, 2004 (UTC)
I've never heard of one, but that's brilliant. Are you going to write one? I think I'd like to read that -- if not write it myself! Garrett Albright 09:20, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Yes. "An Old-Fashioned Mystery" by Runa Fairleigh. Better not spoil it too much, although there's not much left to spoil once you know that. HTH HAND --Phil | Talk 18:31, Mar 25, 2004 (UTC)
I believe there is also a Agatha Christie, but I don't know the title. And if I did it would be unfair to reveal it. DJ Clayworth 18:46, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Maybe this is not the answer you are looking for, but many if not most Christian denominations consider the readers of their bible to be the perpetrators in the murder of their putative messiah. Coherence of the plot depends on a racist notion of Abrahamic supremacy. (Anon)
A clever answer, if it left off early enough. In fact, though, too many (POV alert) of those readers blame it on some other group, such as the authors of the first half of their Bible, thereby missing the point of the story. But then, (POV alert) the claim in the second sentence also misunderstands the principle according to which all people are guilty here. Fortunately, none of this has anything to do with any currently controversial issue. Dandrake 07:07, Apr 6, 2004 (UTC)

United Kingdom Driving Licence contents

--Deny 19:21, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)I have been asked to explain and translate into Brazilian Portuguese the contents of a Driving License issued in the UK. With the exception of part of the table that is shown on the back side of the document, all contents have been clearly understood and translated. However, on the back of the document there is a table with following column headings and information:

9. Cat. = Categories - showing letters B,BE, etc. followed by an icon, such as an automobile for B, an auto towing a trailer, etc. No problem in understanding that these are the categories the owner of the driving licence is permitted to drive.

10. From. = (starting date?) - The same numerals (19-07-69) are shown on all lines corresponding to the icons in col. 9. What do they refer to? They are written as dates, but, if so, what does the date 19 July 1969 refer to?

11. To = (until ?) - Again, other numerals (24-02-42) are repeated on all lines. What do they mean?

10 and 11 refer to the dates for which the various licensed categories are valid, for example, categogy A, motorcycle icon, 21-06-00, 15-01-44 means the bearer is entitled to ride motorcycles from date 21-6-00 to 15-01-2044. Mark Richards 19:51, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

12. Codes - In the particular driving licence I have in hand, only codes 107. 101 and 101,119 are shown, on the lines corresponding to icons for 'double trailers','van' and "van with trailer'. What do they mean? On a different part of what seems to be an extension of this col. 12, there are numerals (115,71)that seem unrelated to any other item in the document. Deny

I would greatly appreciate any help you may give in understanding the above.

--Deny 19:21, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

For the codes: Lupin 19:38, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
From your description, it looks like you only have the photocard, which is only part of the complete driving licence -- there's a paper sheet "Counterpart Driving Licence" and both parts need to be produced if the police need to see the licence. The 'to' and 'from' dates usually refer to the date the driver passed his test for that category of vehicle, and the day before his 70th birthday (after which licences are renewed for three years at a time). The photocard has to be replaced every 10 years (that's 4a and 4b on the front of the card - issue and expiry dates). The codes in section 12 are:
01 eyesight correction
02 hearing/communication aid
10 modified transmission
15 modified clutch
20 modified braking systems
25 modified accelerator systems
30 combined braking and accelerator systems
35 modified control layouts
40 modified steering
42 modified rearview mirror(s)
43 modified driving seats
44 modifications to motorcycles
45 motorcycle only with sidecar
70 exchange of licence
71 duplicate of licence
78 restricted to vehicles with automatic transmission
79 restricted to vehicles in conformity with the specifications stated in brackets
101 not for hire or reward
102 drawbar trailers only
103 subject to certificate of competence
105 not more than 5.5m long
106 restricted to vehicles with automatic transmission
107 not more than 8250 kg
108 subject to minimum age requirements
110 limited to invalid carriages
111 limited to 16 passenger seats
113 limited to 16 passenger seats except for automatics
114 with any special controls required for safe driving
115 organ donor
118 start date is for earliest entitlement
119 weight limit does not apply
120 complies with health standard for category D1
122 valid on successful completion of Basic Moped Training Course.

For example, my licence shows shows 24-06-81 for all categories in 10 (the day I passed my car driving test), 31-08-28 for all categories in 11. In 12, I have 107 against C1E (medium sized vehicles with trailers), 101 against D1 (minibuses) and 101,119 against D1E (minibuses with trailers), while at the bottom I have 01,115 as I wear contact lenses and carry an organ donor card. -- Arwel 21:29, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Oh yes, the categories in section 9 are perhaps a little more technical than they appear!

A1 - light motorcycles not exceeding 125cc with a power output not exceeding 11kW. Minimum age 17.
A - motorcycles up to 25kW and a power to weight ratio not exceeding 0.16kW/kg, or motorcycle combination with a power to weight ration not exceeding 0.16kW/kg. Minimum age 17
A - Any size motorcycle with or without a sidecar. Minimum age 21.
B1 - 3 or 4 wheeled light vehicles - motor tricycles/quadricycles up to 550kg unladen weight. Minimum age 17.
B - Cars. Motor vehicles with a MAM not exceeding 3500kg having no more than 8 passenger seats with a trailer up to 750kg. Combinations of vehicles in category B and a trailer, where the MAM of the combination does not exceed 3500kg and the MAM of the trailer does not exceed the unladen mass of the towing vehicle. Minimum age 17.
B+E - Cars with trailers. Combinations of vehicles consisting of a vehicle in category B and a trailer, where the combination does not come within category B. Minimum age 17.
C1 - Medium sized vehicles. Vehicles between 3500kg and 7500kg, with a trailer up to 750kg. Minimum age 18.
C1+E - Medium sized vehicles with trailers. Vehicles between 3500kg and 7500kg with a trailer over 750kg; combined weight not more than 12000kg. Minimum age 21.
C - Large vehicles. Vehicles over 3500kg with a trailer up to 750kg. Minimum age 21.
C+E - Large vehicles with trailers. Vehicles over 3500kg with a trailer over 750kg. Minimum age 21.
D1 - Minibuses. Vehicles with between 9 and 16 passenger seats with a trailer up to 750kg. Minimum age 21.
D1+E - Minibuses with trailers. Combinations of vehicles where the towing vehicle is in subcategory D1 and its trailer has a MAM of over 750kg, providing that the MAM of the combination thus formed does not exceed 12000kg and the MAM of the trailer does not exceed the unladen mass of the towing vehicle. Minimum age 21.
D - Buses. Any bus with more than 8 passenger seats with a trailer up to 750kg. Minimum age 21.
D+E - Buses with trailers. Any bus with more than 8 passenger seats with a trailer over 750kg. Minimum age 21.
f - Agricultural tractors. Minimum age 17.
g - Road rollers. Minimum age 21.
h - Tracked vehicles. Minimum age 21.
k - Mowing machine or vehicle controlled by a pedestrian. Minimum age 16.
l - Electric vehicles. Minimum age 17.
n - Vehicles used for a very short distance on public roads.
p - Mopeds. Minimum age 16.

These codes are all contained in Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency leaflet INS57P, which is issued with all new licences.

Arwel 21:53, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

What's this bird?

A mystery bird

Anyone know? Lupin 19:35, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Information about the context in which the picture was taken might help identify the subject of the photograph. Bird 21:01, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
The photo was taken on a farm in England. The bird is some sort of water fowl judging by the webbed feet (not too clearly visible in the photo) and this is a male. The chicks are yellow or yellow/black and look like ducklings. The female (identified by the fact that there was a group of chicks following her) has a yellow face rather than a red one. The bird pictured probably has a body around 14 inches long. Lupin 21:14, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Is it maybe a domestic Muscovy Duck? It looks like one. -- 23:32, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
[[14]]might be a good match. - Bevo 23:49, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)
And [15] is good too. I think we've cleared this one up! Thanks to all. Lupin 23:54, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

its clearly some kind of duck, but I'm no expert Sam Spade 23:34, 25 Mar 2004 (UTC)

looking for mom

can you help me with a town -steinhoff germany 1945-1948 - this was a working farm / thank you peter koch /

Which state of Germany is this in ? Jay 10:22, 27 Mar 2004 (UTC)

What was the first article on Wikipedia?

What was it? Who put it up?

Probably Wikipedia:Votes for deletion →Raul654 03:22, Mar 26, 2004 (UTC) (Note, that was a joke)
For our best shot at a real answer, try Wikipedia:Wikipedia's oldest articles. :-) Jwrosenzweig 16:53, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)

scholarship for education

Dear Sir,

My name is Michael.. I live in Israel, Rehovot city ( from 1989 ). I shall graduated from high school in June 2004. My family: My father is the Veterinary medicine doctor. My mother is teaching mathematic in the high school.

I am very interested in studying in Universities of USA or Canada I would like to study in University, College of Veterinary Medicine. I would like to study in Pre – Veterinary degree program ( undergraduate coursework completed ) and ,afterward, I would like to study in Veterinary medical department, to get degree of the Veterinary medical doctor.

Now , I have got an invitation for study from University of Prince Edward Island and Cornell.

I would like to make a request to you .

I would like to know if I could receive a financial support from You ( loan or awards or scholarship ) for studying at the University. This question very important for me and my family.

I would also like to know the terms of repayments.

If your answer is positive , please , inform me about the documents needed for going through the formalities.

If you don’t have an opportunity to help me, I ask you to advice me what organizations I have to make a request.

With my warmest thanks in anticipation of your help.

Sincerely yours,

Michael Drabkin Str. Haeshkoliot 2/23, Rehovot 76284, Israel Tel 97289414015 Fax. 97239681692 e-mail: -- 12:27, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Michael, we are an encyclopedia project. We have no money to offer for scholarships because the work here is done by volunteers. A brief list of scholarships (very very brief) is available at Scholarship, but honestly, type "scholarship" into and go from there. We can't be any help, though we wish you luck, and hope you come back here to share your obtained knowledge with the world by contributing to articles. Jwrosenzweig 16:58, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)

University of Prince Edward Island contact info for International students :

Cornell University contact info :

You may as well put in a note at the talk pages asking for scholarship information at University of Prince Edward Island and Cornell_University.

Jay 10:22, 27 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Anonymous question

Who is the man standing naked with a sword in one hand and a head held high in the other?

I'm afraid I don't have any idea what you're talking about -- this is too vague to be answered, for me. Can you describe any more about this statue/painting? .....Please tell me you're describing a statue/painting! :-) Jwrosenzweig 16:58, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Perhaps you mean Perseus, holding high the head of the slain Medusa. There are lots of statues of him in that pose. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 17:22, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Like this one [16]. -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 17:39, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Believe it or not, I actually have a photo of that I took at the Met. I can upload it if anyone wants. IIRC, it's not great quality, but it should suffice. →Raul654 18:12, Mar 26, 2004 (UTC)
Yes, I think Perseus could really benefit from it (and I'm surprised Adam didn't take a photo of the Vatican's version during his sojurn through the Vatican Museums). -- Finlay McWalter | Talk 19:17, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Done. →Raul654 19:24, Mar 26, 2004 (UTC)

Benjamin Franklin Statue.

I am trying to find out as much information available about the Benjamin Franklin statue which stands on Pennsylvania Ave in Washington DC.

Thank you Stephen Hosmer

  • Dude! Google is your friend! Is this the one: [17], [18], and [19]? -- Nunh-huh 21:16, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)


What is does NB as it means? No1 19:56, 26 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Danish ship ALBSTEIN Battle of Copenhagen 1801



Battle of Copenhagen, Albstein


While reading Television in the United States I was puzzled by this sentence:

   In American television, schlockery and genius are often indistinguishable,
   as the wild success of shows like Star Trek, Charlie's Angels 
   and Beverly Hills 90210 would testify.

What does Schlockery mean? Dmn 16:10, 27 Mar 2004 (UTC)

  • "Shlock" is a term that describes something of low quality or value. A schlock television program would be a slap-dash show knocked together in an effort to appeal to the basest impulses of the broadest possible audience: Charlie's Angels was, I think at the time it was on, referred to as "Jiggle TV": "Baywatch" was another show that believed drama was served best in a D-cup. "Schlockery" seems to be a sort of made-up noun referring to a quality imputed to the creator of schlock. The sentence could probably be eliminated: I don't think it's a particularly apt observation. -- Nunh-huh 21:24, 27 Mar 2004 (UTC)
That sentence is hardly NPOV. RickK | Talk 04:09, 28 Mar 2004 (UTC)
  • sigh* I beseech you all to visit Television in the United States and see what you can do with the "notable programming" section that doesn't turn it into a long list of shows. It's hard, people! You devolve into using words like "schlockery" and getting all POV about Charlie's Angels! jengod 10:00, Mar 31, 2004 (UTC)


I love wikipedia, but i get distressed at the fact that there are no maps, at least they are not shown in the articles. I find maps useful because I know where I am when geographical names are used. Addendum: First time i find a place where i get in touch with some part of you.

I just wrote the article on wikis lack of maps. Forgot to write my name I am Italo Morales from Guatemala

Unfortunately, maps are virtually impossible for a layman to create. Most of the ones that do exist are copyrighted. So finding maps that can be distrubed here is quite difficult. →Raul654 01:01, Mar 28, 2004(UTC)
Contrary to hasty misinformation promoted by self-styled authorities who spend their days comprimising truth by contributing half-baked unresearched opinions to this pseudo-encyclopedia, comprehnsive detailed maps of the United States are available from the US Geological Survey, ( and more extensive global maps are available from other sources such as the United States Central Intelligence Agency ( Maps from either of these sources may be modified by a reasonably skilled layperson with access to standard graphic software. Additional mapping and geospacial data is available in the public domain, but frankly I am so disgusted with the environment of casual misinformation at Wikipedia, I have no desire to furhter assist people who don't care to avail their selves of readily available resoures. ~.~ (anon)
We do try to make full use of public domain resources where possible. The site is already listed in Wikipedia:Public domain image resources Locations > Maps section. However the site has been listed only in the "Nature/Science" section and needs to be added for Maps also. Looking out for public domain image sites is an ongoing process; if you know of websites which are not listed on the page, you could help out there. Jay 11:38, 28 Mar 2004 (UTC)
There is also the Wikipedia:WikiProject Maps, where we try to create maps for Wikipedia. So far the focus is on country subdivision locator maps, but at least for the Phillipines absolutely great maps have been created which are of same quality as commercial maps. andy 14:09, 28 Mar 2004 (UTC)


what is the authors first and last name and their initials?

The author of what? -- Wapcaplet 03:37, 28 Mar 2004 (UTC)
If this question is (as it so often is) related to quoting Wikipedia for a school paper, see Wikipedia:Citing Wikipedia. :-) Jwrosenzweig 23:13, 29 Mar 2004 (UTC)


i wanted to ask that why do painters or others who work with paints use kerosene to clean their hands.what characterstic of kerosene helps in it ?

if anyone knows the answer than please reply to

  • If you mean why do they use kerosene rather than water, it's because kerosene is a better solvent for the materials they use, such as oil-based paints. Its so much better as a solvent they are willing to take the precaustions needed against its flammability and noxious fumes. -- Nunh-huh 23:00, 29 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Beijing UFO

I may have ask to from where i may got that informations for the UFO sighting on rural Beijing the capitol of my country China where then in March 26 2004 a UFO craft had been appeared of the color white and go east in so 3 minutes. I requestiate this more informations and please you help myself, thanks you kind help.

(moved by Maroux from Village Pump)

Perhaps try asking at the Chinese Reference Desk. Garrett Albright 11:46, 28 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Bizarre psychiatric Injury Related to Human Vision Startle Reflex

I have been unable to find a name, descriptive title, or any Internet reference to a phenomenon discovered about fifty years ago. The discovery changed the way office workspace must be designed. The first solution to this problem was the Cubicle. Later Systems Furniture Workstations designed with Cubicle Level Protection serve the same purpose.

When asked, civil engineer designers working for office furniture manufacturers will admit they design workspace so that a concentrating worker cannot see movement approaching from behind. This is called Cubicle Level Protection.

This question has been posed to the Library of Congress, The Internet Public Library, OSHA, and a long list of other resources.

The problem is caused by a quirk of human physiology. Although humans can ignore stimulus/movement which would cause a peripheral vision reflex and break their concentration, since sight is not sensory adaptable, they cannot stop seeing the stimulus/movement.

The detection of stimulus and generation of peripheral vision reflexes operates subliminally. If the situation remains the same peripheral vision reflexes continue to be generated subliminally. This is not detectable by the subject.

Psychology texts and lectures say that a conflict arises in the mind building to a mental break.

More detailed information is available at http://www.VisionAndPsychosis.Net.

So is the question 'what is the name of this peripheral vision response?'? Mark Richards 22:54, 29 Mar 2004 (UTC)

US Airplane

Can someone tell me what kind of airplane the one in Gjirokastër is? I would also be interested in knowing the story behind this particular plane if someone can dig it out. From what I've been able to find out, it was claimed to have been a spy plane shot down during the 1950s. Thanks, Dori | Talk 07:53, Mar 29, 2004 (UTC)

Looks quite like a P-80 Shooting Star; see the image on that page to compare. It's about the right era. The P-80 was a fighter, not a spy plane, but it could have been refitted for reconnaissance. -- DrBob 15:59, 29 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Ah. [This page] identifies it as a Lockheed T-33, which was a trainer/reconnaissance version of the P-80. -- DrBob 16:10, 29 Mar 2004 (UTC)
Cool, thanks. Dori | Talk 16:17, Mar 29, 2004 (UTC)


I saw your page on micronations and saw that you listed several, but have not listed our`s. We seceded from Australia on 2nd September 2003 and it is called The Principality of Snake Hill. Our website is and our email address is As we have territory, we are actually a new country, not a gimmick. We also have ambassadors to represent our nation overseas.

Yours faithfully, Princess Paula The Principality of Snake Hill

The correct URL is -- Finlay, Grand Admiral of the Dark Segment and Lord of the High-Slung Bottoms of Zob!

If this is serious, then I find this very interesting. But your site is poorly made and incomplete (you couldn't even get the URL right!), and your peers as listed here are hardly credible either. If I may be so bold, what evidence do you have that you are really a sovreign nation and not just a bunch of thirteen-year-olds with a free web site account? Garrett Albright 01:52, 30 Mar 2004 (UTC)

Daylight savings observance

Was daylight savings observed in Minnesota in 1954? How about in Vermont in 1945?

It's not cheap ($195), but there's a comprehensive book about the history of time changes by locale, designed for astrologers, of all things. (Maybe you can find an older edition on eBay or in used bookstores.) It is available by computer download here: -- Catherine 05:22, 1 Apr 2004 (UTC)
This is probably the sort of thing that's going to require local reference work in Minnesota and Vermont; I think it might be a bit too esoteric elsewhere. Your best bet might be to contact reference librarians at reasonably large libraries in both states, who can check primary sources if necessary. (With newspapers on hand, there's really only three or six issues to check for each state, if you know what day DST would have started.) mendel 21:10, Apr 2, 2004 (UTC)
According to a quick scan of the tz database, I understand that daylight saving time was observed in both cases, and that in 1955 Minnesota changed from September to October. The reference cites Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition), San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991) with its errata sheet. See also: History of standard time in the United States.


Freedom (English) to SCOTS or GAELIC

Saoirse in Gaelic

Riemann sphere projection

respected sir i have a question .plz help me out to solve it, my question is " Describe projection on the Riemann sphere of the following sets in the complex plane:(given sketch also) 1) The right half plane. 2) The disk {z:|z|<1/2} 3) The annulus {z:1<|z|<2} 4) The set {z:|z|>3} 5) The line y=x."

This looks to me like a homework question. Perhaps the article on Riemann surfaces may be of assistance? I don't know much about the subject. -- Wapcaplet 19:30, 30 Mar 2004 (UTC)

White Australia policy

this isn't a dispute per se nor does it exactly require arbitration... I'd like to know where I can request that someone look over this article. I find it highly POV (for reasons I left at the bottom of its talk page), and one user simply stopped communication after a very brief (and somewhat snippy on both sides) exchange. Is there somewhere I can place the article for someone to look at at? Besides here, I mean, for the express perpose of scanning it for POV-ness?  :) Ensiform 00:48, 31 Mar 2004 (UTC)

YOu could list it on Wikipedia:Peer review. -- Jmabel 07:16, 2 Apr 2004 (UTC)