Reference desk archive/November 2004 IV

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Videos downloaded on Kazaa to DVD

I was wondering if anyone knew how to burn videos downloaded on Kazaa to DVD, or what program I should use, ect... I want to burn this awesome Neil Young concert recording...

I presume that you don't just want to burn the file to a dvd, but want to make a disc playable on all DVD players? I also presume that you have a DVD burner. If this is the case then you need DVD mastering software. What OS are you using? The Recycling Troll 03:01, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • Windows XP, have a burner... I'm thinking of downloading a trial of Ulead DVD Movie Factory
Sounds like that would do, there might be some open source or free software to do this though, I don't know. The Recycling Troll 03:24, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Be aware that you are possibly committing an act of piracy... Garrett Albright 03:46, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)
It's a Canadian IP address so there should be no problems as long as the DVD is for personal use. - SimonP 05:44, Nov 19, 2004 (UTC)

Try this Mark Richards 17:48, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)

KaZaA is going downhill. You may want to defect to eMule. Chameleon 21:04, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)

  • In reference to the comment above, does Canada have peculiarly lax copyright laws? Just saw the link. --bodnotbod » .....TALKQuietly) 23:43, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)
Canadian copyright law - this is pretty unforthcoming. Trollminator 23:48, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

What is a sweet spot and where is it?

I was buffled by the scene in the movie Pitch Black, where Riddick tries to scare Fry by telling something strange about his experience in a slam. Here is a quote from the script (the actual dialog in the movie is a bit different, part of it was reused in The Chronicles of Riddick)

Tell me about the sounds. You told them you heard something right before....
(no response)
If you don't talk to me, Johns'll take another crack at it -- at your skull.
'Mean the whispers?
What whispers?
The ones tellin' me to go for the sweet spot -- just to the left of the spine, fourth lumbar down. The abdominal aorta. What a gusher. Had a cup on his belt, so I used it to catch a little run-off. Metallic taste to it, human blood. Coppery. But if you cut it with peppermint schnapps, that goes away. Course, that's more for winter. Summertime, I take mine straight.
Fry stares. Riddick gets a black satisfaction from his role as Boogeyman: If fear is the only kind of respect he can get, Riddick is going to grab some with both hands.

I don't understand what the "sweet spot" is in the context of a human being. Urbandictionary (not the most reputable source) says it's "The patch of skin between the asshole and the balls", but it doesn't correspond to the description and the movie scene (there is a scar on the back). It also doesn't look like that would be a particularly attractive place to drink blood from (if that's what Riddick did).

Any help would be appreciated. Paranoid 13:11, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Help? What kind of help? The name of a good tennis pro? This is fantasy anatomy. Everyone knows the sweet spot is the part of the tennis racket you try to hit the ball with. This seems to suggest that a stab several inches through the skin would result in produse bleeding from the abdominal aorta, which it would. The scar seems to suggest the person recovered from it, which he probably wouldn't. Although it's a little hard to take seriously anyone who thinks a vampire movie is a good place to learn anything factual about anything. Note to questioner: if you are not a trained professional, do not try this at home. Note to Eequor: if you censor this, you assume responsibility if this poor deluded fool hurts someone. alteripse 13:25, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)

In general terms the sweet spot is a place on anything that, when hit, has some desirable effect, for example: There's a sweet spot on the hood of my car - if you hit it, the hood opens. In this context, I think that Riddick is just fucking with Fry, suggesting that there is some 'sweet spot' on his body that R would love to drain of blood. There is nothing in human anatomy to suggest any truth to this. Trollminator 13:28, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)
What is it with Eequor and censorship? I've never seen her censor anything ... Gelu Ignisque
  • Northrop Frye?

The sweet spot is left of the spine, fourth lumbar down. it's the abdominal aorta. the largest artery in the body. bleed out is under ten seconds. and it wasn't a vampire movie. idiot

Most of you guys here are reatrded. do a google search. anyway, the spine is devided in to 5 sections. they are (from top to bottom, the cervicle (neck area), the thoracic (upper to mid back), the lumbars (lower back), the sacral (near you butt), and the coccyx (the tail bone)

what he means is now obvious just to the left of the fourth verterbre down, in the lumbar section. if u hit it right, you will hit the abdominal aorta. if i do that the victim will die within 10-15 seconds.

-Dustin, Arizona, USA

Photon holes

Is the paper at [1] supported by current knowledge of physics? What might the consequences be if this theory was accepted? --η♀υωρ 18:29, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)

black caps on green? doesn't that scream crank? while there is a lot of standard physics in it, the "two kinds of photons" is totally alien to traditional quantum electrodynamics (from a photon's pov, there is no time). not that I read the whole thing, though ;) dab 20:00, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)
The author does, at least, seem to have spent a good deal of time on this; it's well-written and cross-referenced to even more garish colors. It would be very worrying if it was obviously wrong.
While a photon may not experience time itself, isn't our experience of a photon's position in time the main concern? --η♀υωρ 22:31, 19 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Just in case this wacky idea catches on, I hereby coin the name skoton for these quanta of darkness. --Heron 12:27, 20 Nov 2004 (UTC)
*lol* :D dab 14:09, 20 Nov 2004 (UTC)
yes but you (meaning QED) cannot "mirror" a photon, as you can mirror an electron into a positron, for example, because the photon is the mirror, so to speak. I haven't dug into this fellows explanations to decide if he really comes up with a consistent alternative theory. but I doubt it. dab 14:15, 20 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Would this correspond to the transactional interpretation? --η♀υωρ 02:39, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

yes. But a "reversed photon" is just a photon, going in the opposite direction. not a "skoton" or anything like that. "perception of darkness" is beside the point anyway, since that's a question of neurology, not particle physics. dab 16:31, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
The caps on bright green keep me indeed from reading on, so I can only offer some thoughts: The paper seems to offer only an interpretation, no new prediction. There is a lot of different ways to look at quantum phenomena and get an intuitive understanding, why not bright green photon holes? But it is at least right that spontaneous emission of photons can (and should) be imagined as emission stimulated by a virtual photon from the quantum vacuum. That nicely explains the Purcell effect.

And for the direction in time, there is this nice story of John A. Wheeler excitely telling Richard Feynman that he now knows why "all the electrons are the same": There is only one electron in the Universe, but it runs back and forth in time incredible often. [2] Simon A. 21:05, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)

What charges would these people get?

Dr. Armstrong- Operated under the influence of alcohol, and patient died. He did not inform anybody of his being drunk.

Emily Brent- Fired a girl who got pregnant out of wedlock. Girl committed suicide.

What charge could be brought against those two seperate people, and if anything, how much of a penalty/prison sentence would they get?

(NOTE: Neither of those people are real. They are from a book.)

Armstrong could be charged with medical malpractice. Brent could probably be charged with manslaughter, though it's unclear whether the girl committed suicide as a result of being fired or having an illegitimate child. [[User:Rdsmith4|User:Rdsmith4/sig]] 01:34, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Dr. Armstrong could probably be sued for medical malpractice and would almost certainly be criminally charged with something. His/her medical license would also probably be revoked. As for Emily Brent, no penalty. (My answer assumes U.S. law) Neutrality (hopefully!) 01:58, Nov 21, 2004 (UTC)
IANALB re doctor:
  • I think you'll indeed find that most malpractice is not a crime (a criminal wrong, which is what people usually mean when they talk about being charged), but a tort, or civil wrong, the damaging act that is the basis for suing the person committing the tort, seeking damages (i.e., property, usually money, from the perpetrator of the tort, intended to make the victim of the tort "whole", i.e. to compensate them for the damage done by the tort).
  • (But there may be at least in some jurisdictions such a thing as "criminal malpractice"; this would be quite different from the (civil) malpractice that you always hear mentioned.)
  • Still, at least in US and probably at least in all common-law jurisdictions, the acts that a surgeon normally performs constitute assault, and i think are only free of criminal significance when and because the elements that constitute battery are absent, as is usual. A surgeon who operates drunk, at least if any reasonable alternative for saving the patient's life or health is available, has committed a criminal assault, and a resulting death would be not simply the basis of a suit for malpractice, but also a homicide. (In New York, that homicide would probably fit at least the standard for depraved indifference that is so beloved by the writers for Law and Order.) Despite the obvious fact that cutting people with knives is not treated as assault when done by a surgeon (or because its not being a crime requires substitute protections), the standards that doctors must conform to, to avoid torts and crimes, are much higher than for lay people. Factors that play in, in the general decisions of legislators and the specific instructions that judges will give to jurors even in the absence of statute law, probably include the need for public confidence in doctors' responsibility, the more extensive knowledge doctors have of things like the hazards of iatrogenic injury and the effects of alcohol on the drinker's performance, and the extra help that doctors get in making responsible decisions (Hippocratic Oath, general medical ethics, and courses in legal medicine).
--Jerzy(t) 19:54, 2004 Nov 21 (UTC)
IANALB, re employer:
It's indeed far-fetched to suggest manslaughter would ever be charged, if only because it's unreasonable to anticipate such an over-reaction as suicide in response to losing a job, and because employers don't have such broad responsibility to protect their employees away from the workplace that they control. Depending on the mores of the time, Brent might be an unlucky bystander, guilty at most of poor taste in how openly she acted in protection of public morals, or of insensitvity and sticking her nose into others' private affairs.
But there was a brief gesture at prosectuting someone, in northern New England probably in the 1990s, for an accidental death in a dispute about overdue rent and the landlord's claim to be able to seize, IIRC, something like a house trailer (mobile home) in lieu of the rent. The tenants defiantly hauled the unit away, the landlord became agitated and died of a heart-attack, and the sheriff arrested the tenants for homicide. But it seemed clear to me that it was an unfounded case and an abuse of authority committed for the sake of standing up for a family of long-term residents against perceived outsiders, and no more was heard of it after a few days, IMO supporting that view. (My guess is that the sheriff was immediately sued for false arrest and made a quick out-of-court monetary settlement, possibly on the advice of the state's Attorney General, with a condition that the tenants wouldn't talk to the press....the sheriff may have indirectly paid the back rent!)
--Jerzy(t) 19:54, 2004 Nov 21 (UTC)

Okay,thank you..Only problem is, the story takes place somewhere in Europe...Dunno exactly where,though..

If in Europe, firing the girl is most likely illegal (It's possible for there to be a contract requiring termination of employment on pregnancy - if you were a medical testee, say - but one that preferentially worked on marital status would be illegal on discrimination grounds); it's not a criminal act, though, so as I understand these things it's unlikely charges would be brought (and the person most able to sue is, well, dead). It's worth noting that the suicide isn't something Brent is culpable for; the only illegal act was to fire the girl. (Most of Europe has better labour-protection laws than the US does).
The doctor, hrm. When a complaint made suspended; if it's likely the patient died due to his drunkenness, possibly charged with some form of manslaughter? Shimgray 03:19, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
You can't fire someone for being pregnant in the US, under the FMLA. A survivor might choose to file a civil suit for wrongful termination and another for wrongful death, but I doubt the latter would get very far. The doctor, on the other hand, is in a lot deeper trouble than malpractice. In some jurisdictions, he's committed second degree murder -- the phrases "extreme indifference to human life" and "reckless conduct" are relevant. This article from touches on this sort of thing. --jpgordon{gab} 03:50, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
You may not be able to fire someone on grounds of pregnancy per se, but
  • many employees may contractually be fired for "moral turpitude" and there is so long a history of that unquestionably including "illegitimate" pregnancies that, even in these relatively tolerant times, the language of the contract may not need to say so explicitly.
  • FMLA is unlikely to override entirely the fact that most employment without a written contract is at the pleasure of the employer; most likely what FMLA bars is discrimination based on pregnancy per se, and mostly likely an employer claiming the firing was on moral grounds, of the implicit fornication and/or the presumption of contraceptional irresponsibility, would in effect be taken at their word.
--Jerzy(t) 19:54, 2004 Nov 21 (UTC)
Every job application I can ever remember signing stated that "this is 'at-will' employment; you can be terminated at any time for any reason whatsoever, or for no reason at all." Maybe I have just been getting the crap jobs :-) -- Wapcaplet 23:39, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
No legal opinions here, but the story is Ten Little Niggers (apologies, but that's what it is (or was) called) by Dame Agatha Christie. It is set on an island off the coast of Devon in England in early August 1939, but Armstrong committed his crime in 1925 and Brent hers in 1931. 08:14, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
In that case; doctor guilty of manslaughter (and possibly subsidiary crimes, like malpractice, but they're effectively negligible in comparison to the big one), woman guilty of... well, nothing. It's not the sort of thing she'd be happy to tell people about, but as I understand it she wouldn't have committed any crime (worker protection being trivial in the 30s, and the suicide not being her fault.) Shimgray 19:07, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
My understanding is that in the story, whether or not they are actually (legally) guilty of anything is probably irrelevant. The point is that someone thinks that they are, without going into too much detail in case you haven't gotten that far. (It ought to be a crime to spoil an Agatha Christie ending.) Actually, the harder it would be to see them punished under the legal system, the more their selection makes sense. -Aranel ("Sarah") 23:17, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
According to a 1932 almanac (this book is useful today) - "An unmarried domestic servant found to be [pregnant] may be peremptorily dismissed without notice; but any attempt to examine without her consent a servant supposed to be [pregnant] renders the employer liable to an action" (and, yes, that last bit scares me too - that's almost certainly from case-law). Just a note... Shimgray 01:05, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)



There's an excellent tutorial for people who are starting from zero knowledge of HTML at HTML Goodies. Schmeitgeist 16:59, Dec 23, 2004 (UTC)

Your best bet is to search the web for a free HTML tutorial -- the web has thousands of them. We even have our own, HTML tutorial at Wikibooks, although it looks like the later chapters are not yet finished. Still enough to get you started. If that doesn't suit, try looking at the results of this Google search for "beginning HTML tutorial", and pick one that looks promising to you. Good luck! Catherine\talk 04:21, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Talbot County, Maryland

The Talbot County, Maryland page lists many place names and where the name originated. I am especially interested in 2 that are not listed. Tar Island (also called Tar Point) just north of Tilghman Island and Amy's Marsh Point ( possibly Amil's Marsh at one time) which is also just north of Tilghman. Information about these 2 seems to be non-existent. Any help would be appreciated.

Tar Island is locally sometimes called Tar Point since it isn't an island any more. It has become a northern point of land on Tilghman Island. Sediment, tides, and the ocasional hurricanee tend to rearrange the shore line. The point is sort of on the Chesapeake side of Tilghman. The only refernce I've ever found (besides the Geodetic Survey maps) was a wildlife survey, noting the presence of Pelicans. Amy Marsh Point (from the CGS map) is a southwest extension (not on the island) just north of there. If you look for the CGS map, it is the Tilghman, MD quadrangle. You're right about non-existent but many small terrain features (creeks, hills, etc.) are like that. Lou I

To become a forensic scientist

How long would you have to go to college (not including the first four years with all the boring non-career crap), and what college would you have to go to to become a forensic scientist? (For any field within forensics, too.)


Well, it depends in large part on what you want to do. According to "Advice about a Career in Forensic Science", written by Dale Nute of FSU's School of Criminology & Criminal Justice, the amount of time varies from 4 years for a crime scene examiner up to 7+ years getting a medical degree for medical examiners.
As to advice on what schools to go to, that's a bit outside of my knowledge area. Keep in mind that real forensics isn't much like what you see on CSI. -- Cyrius| 03:39, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Oh, lol..I know. Thank you.

EPO the drug

Please could you tell me what the above drug is, what category makes it illegal and how it alledgedly helps athletes' performance. Please reply on my talk page.--Honeycake (The Pot of Honey) 09:26, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

EPO erythropoietin is a protein hormone produced by the kidneys (yeah, every organ's really an endocrine organ). It is a growth factor hormone for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. It increases the number of red blood cells in the blood (the hematocrit, the hemoglobin, and the RBC counts in a CBC). It is available as an expensive injectable therapeutic agent produced by recombinant DNA technology.

It produces the same effect as a transfusion of red blood cells, but repeated transfusions carry a variety of risks. It is most often used for people with anemia due to diseases that interfere with RBC production, especially chronic renal failure and anemia due to cancer chemotherapy. Off the top of my head I think Epogen and Procrit are 2 US brands; at least one has been advertised on television as a treatment for tiredness in cancer patients.

If your RBC mass is not excessive, and you are otherwise healthy, increasing it with EPO will marginally increase the oxygen carrying capacity of your blood, which will marginally increase your exercise endurance. EPO is yet one more forbidden ergogenic agent ("doping agent") taken taken by athletes to cheat.

PS, Eequor, don't remove this or Gabe might lose his next bicycle race. alteripse 13:19, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

How many moons does Earth have?

I was watching a London TV program a while ago, and one question was "How many moons does Earth have?". The panel said "two, that question was asked last series." And the answer was (apparently) 3. However, I only know one: the one we see @ night. And the article on it says it's the only one. Can someone please enlighten me on my talk page?--Honeycake (The Pot of Honey) 09:32, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

You're looking for 3753 Cruithne and J002E3. The first orbits the earth, sort of, and the second looks like it's actually the booster from Apollo 12. It orbited the earth for a while in 2002-2003, but it's gone now. Diderot 10:07, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Of course, it is odd in the extreme to refer to either object as a "moon". Generally, one expects there to be a certain size requirement for "moon status", otherwise, every stray particle of cosmic dust in orbit could also be so described. Referring to a man made object as a moon is also strange and inappropriate. There is thought to be quite a bit of discarded trash in orbit from the US and Russian space programs. One wouldn't want to call a lost hammer from the Mercury mission a "moon". Sigh... what is London television coming to these days? ;-) func(talk) 12:53, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Are you talking about the almost impossibly smug QI? They regularly stretch the truth in an attempt to seem superior. adamsan 13:17, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Oh, lighten up: it's entertainment. And, personally, I do find the trivia they raise "quite interesting"; and I don't think this is "stretching the truth" - they didn't say "nobody in their right mind thinks Earth only has one moon", they were just drawing attention to speculation that such-and-such an object might also be a moon, by some definitions. [Also, how funny, I'd never have thought of it as being "London TV", any more than I'd think of "New York TV" or something else. Just goes to show...erm, something.] - IMSoP 19:36, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
You're entitled to your opinion, though I note you don't deny the unbearable smugness. adamsan 20:05, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Well, I'd deny the "unbearable" bit, but yes, Stephen Fry does have a distinctly smug persona - part of the fun is watching the rest of them laugh at him because of it. - IMSoP 20:55, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
It's possible for earth to have more than one (natural) moon - although for a period in the 1950s artifical satellites were referred to as "moons" - we're fairly sure there isn't by now, simply because if it was close enough to orbit us on any reasonable timescale we'd probably have seen it. At various points, as Diderot points out, there have been annoucements of new moons; neither panned out to be correct. Cruithne doesn't orbit earth unless you stretch the definition of "orbit" (although it's a neat path it follows), and J002E3 did orbit us briefly, but was identified as artificial - so it wouldn't count, unless you want to claim we have around a quarter of a million moons. Shimgray 16:27, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Islamic culture

What were the effects of early arabic culture on the development of Islam?

well you see the main roots of islam were derived from Arabic culture. but be a little more specific.....are you interested more in the religion, or the customs, or the culture of islam and arab?

- glad to help

20:08, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Estivation and Diurnation

Does anyone know which endotherms and which ectotherms perform estivation and diurnation? Please answer fast. I do not need detail, just specific animals.

20:07, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)~

Snails, salamanders, and lungfish are estivatory ectotherms; bats and raccoons are diurnatory endotherms. --η♀υωρ 21:24, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Dialect spoken in Guangdong?

I was told that Pinyin is used for Mandarin Chinese in Guangdong. I need to know "HOW" & "WHAT" dialect I should be practicing for speech & written word in Guangdong?

On the streets, people speak either Cantonese or Kejia (Hakka). The written language, and the language of most TV and radio, is going to be Mandarin. A lot of people, certainly the well educated ones, are going to be biglossic. In print, you'll see mostly modern standard Mandarin written in Simplified Chinese characters - but people don't relate written language to spoken language in China the way they do in the west, so they may not think of Cantonese or Kejia as languages that have written forms of their own. Pinyin is used mostly for transcription and pedagogic purposes - it's not something people use to write Chinese very often. Diderot 21:32, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Also see romanization. An example is Hànyǔ pīnyīn, which is the romanized Chinese name for pinyin. For an extensive online dictionary which uses pinyin along with a number of other representations, see Zhongwen. --η♀υωρ 21:48, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)
If you were going to be visiting or living in Guangdong ONLY, especially the smaller towns, then you would probably want to learn Cantonese to communicate with the local people. However, as pointed out above, most people with any education can at least understand some spoken Mandarin and can probably speak it, albeit with an accent (Mandarin is taught in all schools in mainland China). If you were going to travel at all, then Mandarin would be much more useful to you. So all in all it's probably better to learn Mandarin with some Cantonese thrown in. (There is considerable overlap between the two. I've heard Cantonese referred to as Mandarin that's been "damaged on delivery.") Mjklin 05:10, 2004 Nov 22 (UTC)

where is transylvania

See Transylvania - Nunh-huh 23:56, 21 Nov 2004 (UTC)

To the person who asked where Transylvania is at, there is a Transylvania County, North Carolina, in the mountain region. ~anon
See Transylvania (disambiguation) for some other uses of the name. Catherine\talk 03:46, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

French West Africa

I am doing reseach about this topic and I chech some information about French West Africa on the Wikipedia website but I didn't understand what year French West Africa was started, and named. Please inform me the information? Thanks!

Directly from the French West Africa article: "Originally created in 1895 as a union of Senegal, French Sudan, Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire ..." The name seems self-explanatory -- they were all territories in West Africa, and they were all French. Catherine\talk 03:50, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

MAOI Inhibitors and their interactions with other psychoactives

I would like to know more about what an MAOI Inhibitor is. Why do I always hear that I shouldn't take such and such if I take MAOI inhibitors? And how do MAOI inhibitors effect psychoactives especially hallucinogenics? thanks -Graham

See monoamine oxidase inhibitor (you need to look up MAO inhibitor or MAOI, not MAOI inhibitor: the I already stands for inhibitor). MAOIs interact with a lot of drugs and foods, which is why you always hear the warnings...the most classic being that foods which contain a lot of tyramine (including port wine cheese and other tasty items) can cause, when eaten by a person on MAOIs, a severe increase in blood pressure that may result in death. There's some information about the interaction with hallucinogens in the article. - Nunh-huh 08:39, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

what is a mooloo?

? 10:26, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

I think it has something to do with New Zealand Rugby. Mark Richards 20:16, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Specifically the Waikato rugby team and its supporters in the National Provincial Championship. There may be other uses I guess.... Lisiate 22:05, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

There is a place called Mooloo Downs Station in Western Australia; it is the source for the mineral moolooite (moolooite). --Key45 22:44, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I can't believe we don't already have an article for something named moolooite. Catherine\talk 04:22, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
But now we do... Lisiate 01:09, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

List of Bishops of Salisbury

I'm trying to find a complete list to add into Bishop of Salisbury which for some reason only goes up to 1524. Despite numerous Google searches etc I can't find any such list except for stuff similar to what the article already has. There must have been bishops between the mid 1550s and the late 20th century, but who were they? Thanks. Muntfish 13:27, 2004 Nov 22 (UTC)

In 1931 the bishop was the Rt. Rev St. Clair George Alfred Donaldson, DD, who took office in 1921. He's listed as the 95th in my 1932 Whitaker's Almanac (the source for the above), but my 2002 lists the current incumbent as the 77th. I don't know why the discrepancy. Shimgray 20:07, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Update - I've fired off an email to the Diocese of Salisbury, and asked pleadingly for them to explain it... all very strange. Seems to be there for some dioceses (Lincoln has the 90th in '32 and the 70th today) but not others (Lichfield has gone from the 93rd to the 97th). Shimgray 21:58, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
[3] gives a full list for Lincoln, up to the current at #71; it doesn't explain why my almanac gives their #63 as #90. All very strange. Shimgray 22:32, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Hmm, that's all very odd - but thanks for checking. The Salisbury Diocese website says that the current bishop (David Stancliffe) is the 77th. I can only assume that it depends on where you start counting from. Dioceses (sp?) sometimes change/split/merge (and the reformation seems to complicate things substantially) so maybe that has something to do with it? Muntfish 09:15, 2004 Nov 23 (UTC)
The nice lady at Salisbury says she's checked the reference (which she gives as Cockroft's Theological Directory, and he's the 76th there (and my "95th" is their 69th) - but they're not numbered, so she may have miscounted. Doesn't have any idea why the miscounting, but if I can compare to an old list it'd be interesting. Aberdeen University library, up the road from me, have copies from 1962 onwards - and an old 1935 copy - in their catalogue [4]; I think I've found a research topic for my next free afternoon. And, yes, I will type up a list of the Bishops anyway. ;-) Useless trivia - here's a 1932 diocese map My guess is that it's not the reformation or merging, but I have to run - will write more later. Shimgray 10:57, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Update - There's about 30 on the page at the moment, which ends pre-Reformation; this might be enough to explain it, but it doesn't explain why places like York and Durham - just as old, and surviving through the Anglican/Catholic, ah, national indecisiveness - haven't had the numbers change.
A quick look last night (IIRC at Ripon, which became Ripon & Leeds in 1999) suggested that renaming or expanding the diocese doesn't restart the numbering - and I don't think Salisbury's likely to have changed that much. There's an interesting answer in here somewhere, and I suspect it's not just a list of silly misprints in the almanac :-) Shimgray 12:41, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
For lists of CofE Bishops from ancient times until the 1890s, try Haydn's Book of Dignities (1894, ed. by Horace Ockerby). Bishops of Salisbury from 1046 to 1885 are on page 466-7; Deans of Salisbury on 468. Will add the info to the page. Dbiv 00:48, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)
Thanks! I've started to convert the list into a table like the other bishop pages. Muntfish 09:55, 2004 Dec 8 (UTC)

Microsoft PowerPoint 2003 - Sound Effects

In MSPpt 2003, is there any way of having a sound on one slide of PowerPoint, then set it to play for several slides and then stop it AT A SPECIFIC POINT on another slide? If so, please tell me how?--03williss 13:44, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

One way to do it is to launch an external application that accepts command line parameters (old Windows media player and sound recorder should work). Then the first slide should have an object that would start the playback of a certain audio file via its associated action and one of the latter slides would have an action that would stop it.
Another way may be to record Narration using PowerPoint built-in tool. Paranoid 22:53, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)

about utilitarianism?? plz

utilitarianism is a very interesting theory that i began to study it in depth , and there is this question which I would like to to apply the utilitarianism theory to it, the question is

" is about applying utilitarianism theory to the moral value of Joseph Rowntree's contribution to society"

there is also another interesting theory which called Universalism, can u please apply and compare these 2 theories to the above question

id really appreciate it if u could contact me as soon as u read this email

thanks alot for the information provided in ur site and looking forward to hearing from you soon

yours G.d

Ps. can u email me your answer please to "" !

We do not usually reply by email and we do not usually help people with their homework (which is what you seem to want). r3m0t 15:46, 23 Dec 2004 (UTC)

WMD in Iraq

By now it should be common knowledge that the Bush administration lied to the American people and Congress about Saddam Hussein possessing and producing WMD with which to fund the Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks. However, someone told me that a few sarin bombs were indeed found in Iraq, and these count as WMD. Is this true? Could somebody please give me the facts, or possibly a way to refute this? --Gelu Ignisque

Geez. I'm no fan of Bush, but that was a bit vitriolic, even for me. Anyway, here's a CNN reference to a single artillery shell found with sarin. Not exactly a secret weapons cache, but still technically a chemical weapon. --Cvaneg 20:48, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
you mean you are no fan of Bush, but that was a bit vitriolic. I readily believe there are intelligent conservatives. But obviously, there are also 59M that are rather less so. dab 10:34, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
A small quantity of sarin bombs have indeed been discovered. However, I take offense at your suggestion that my countrymen who maintain the president's good intentions are all ignorant - I know some very intelligent conservatives. Personal attacks are contrary to Wikipedia policy, and surely you must be aware that a large number of Wikipedians are American.
The concern over the Iraq war, in America at least, is no longer whether there are WMDs in Iraq - Saddam appears to have never had them, effectively hidden them, or destroyed them - but whether the president was (a) doing what he thought was best based on the (incorrect) intelligence given him, or (b) deliberately deceiving the country. Your friend is correct, though there is no apparent need to refute him, since the quantity of WMDs found has been negligible. [[User:Rdsmith4|User:Rdsmith4/sig]] 21:39, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)
If memory serves, some traces were found following the explosion of an IED (Improvised Explosive Device) and the conclusion reached that this was some old chemical shell left over from the Iran-Iraq war. I think The Coalition's investigators concluded that it was either recovered from a battlefield (either a dud or a shell discarded or misplaced in the heat of battle) or from some badly maintained store. Either way, it's highly unlikely that the iraqi military actually knew they had the thing. Most militaries paint chemical shells a different colour, but left to the elements it's likely that the paint wore off, leaving Mr Insurgent to incorporate it unawares into one of his shell-based IEDs. If Mr Insurgent did know a given shell was chemical (I believe the great majority of the Iraqi army's reserves were mustard gas) he'd be very unlikely to use it, as a) ancient, rusty old chemical shells are as likely to leak nasty stuff on him while he's doing the rather delicate job of changing its fuse, and b) chemical weapons are crap, and he's much more likely to kill Coalition soldiers with a normal shell. The matter of misplacing NBC materials is one from which all militaries suffer - just before the last Iraqi war, the US Army fessed up that it had "lost" several tons of chemical shells (I think they were sure they still had them, but the paperwork was lost, so they had no idea where in the huge inventory they might be). Similarly, here's a scary ass photo of rusty old US mustard gas shells. I dare anyone who things the Iraqis should have known what was in all the crappy old shells lying around in holes in their countryside to take a trip out to the Solomon Islands and play at "guess what's in this shell" :) - John Fader

I remember seeing a headline in the news-crawl on CNN a while back that "weapons of mass destruction" had indeed been found in Iraq, and that they consisted of small quantities of chemical agents most likely intended for assassination attempts. (These may be the same sarin bombs you've mentioned). Broadly defining WMD to include all chemical weapons, regardless of quantity or intended purpose, seems a fairly liberal (no pun intended) interpretation. Assassination is just about the exact opposite of mass destruction. -- Wapcaplet 23:33, 22 Nov 2004 (UTC)

I agree. The answer to the question depends on whether you accept the authority of the US Government to define "Weapons of Mass Destruction" in any way they see fit. I'm sure most people would assume that a Weapon of Mass Destruction is capable of causing mass destruction, and as far as I'm aware no weapons capable of such mass destruction have been located in Iraq. Proteus (Talk) 12:49, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Need URGENT help with research project (copied from Village Pump)

Please anyone help me with this if possible, i'm stuck in this research that i'm doing on stone. If anyone can give me links to info on ( stone construction, masonry, types and advantages of stone) I would be very grateful. Best Regards,

Are you interested in sone as geological point of view or as building point of you? And in the latter case are you interest at the material (the raw stone) or at the final prudoct (the building)? AnyFile 13:21, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)


Where did the word piedmont originate France or Italy?

According to in Italy, but the words are so similar in French and Italian that the distinction is difficult. Compare the french pied a terre and Mont Blanc, for instance, to see examples of both words spelled identically in both languages. alteripse 00:06, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

At the time the word came out (surely before 19 century, pherephs much earlier) there not exist Italy neither Italian. In this region the common language was a local language that is now the slang of that region. Intellectual, I think, spoke Italian (in the sense I will explain), French and Latin. In any langauge the word has been formed it is sure that the word came from Latin words. Italian language was not already well settle. Italian languege came out later when intellectual wanted that the language used in Tuscany (the language of Dante Alighieri and many other important letterates) should be used in the whole just borned state of Italy. In the 18th century and the first half of 19th century the region Piemonte was part of a State that lied between the two present State of France and Italy. This State was named Kindom of Savoie first and then State of Sardinia. The reason of these names are that at the beginning the capitol was in Savoie (Savoie is the French version of the name in Italian is Savoia), in the latter time the (now) Italian part became more important (and the capital became Turin) and as the Sardinia island was added to the kindom and it was the most extended part of the kindom the name changed. At this epoch there is not much sense to discriminate between Italian and French. The languge was a mixture of Italian (northen Italian with some central Italian) French of type Oil (the one of Paris) and French of type Oc (the one of Provence). Nowdays there are some town in Italy where the old Lingua d'oca is still spoken (actual it is dsappearing). There are many place where French in Italy is an offical language (as in the autonomus Region of Valle d'Aosta AnyFile 14:38, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Finding slope and x-intercerpts in linear equations

In the equation "2x + 8y = 16," how can I find the slope, x-intercept, and y-intercept? --Anon

intercept, and y-intercept? --Anon

See slope. You want to put the equation in the form y=mx+b. m is the slope, b is the y-intercept.

                              2x + 8y = 16
(subtract 2x from both sides)      8y = 16 - 2x
(divide equation by 8)              y = 2 - .25x      
(shuffle)                           y = - .25x + 2

so m = -0.25 = slope
   b = 2 = y intercept

The x-intercept is the place the line crosses the y axis...that is, the point where y=0. (Think about this: every point on the x axis has a y coordinate of 0.)

                               y = -.25x + 2
(substitute 0 for y)           0 = -.25x + 2
(add .25x to both sides)    .25x = 2
(divide both sides by .25)     x = 4

At least I think that's right <g>. If this doesn't make sense to you I'm sure there are other methods, like graphing, that someone else can explain. - Nunh-huh 03:32, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Actually you should have x = 8. Dividing both sides by .25 is the same as multiplying by 4, and 2×4 = 8. AlexG 20:45, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Also, if given a slope of –3 and a point of (2,–1), how can I write the equation in standard form? --Anon

you have the slope and a point. 
1 = 3*2 - b
1 = 6 - b
b = 5
y = 3x - 5
- Nunh-huh 03:32, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)


 So let's do a similar one:
2x - 9y - 45 = 0 
   + 9y        +9y        (add 9y to both sides)
2x - 45 = 9y              
 /9         /9            (divide all sides by 9 to get "y" by itself)
0.22x - 45 = y            (in slope-intercept)

And to find the "x" and "y":

2/9x - 45 = y
2/9(0) - 45 = y
-45 = y                     (-45 = y?)
2/9x - 45 = (0) 
      +45   +45
      2/9x = 45
        x = 202.5           (202.5 = x?)


(2)(202.5) - (9)(-45) - 45 = 0
   (405) - (405) - 45 = 0

Now, I know that's not accurate, because the extra -45 makes it untrue. What am I doing wrong? (--Anon)

When you divided both sides by 9 to isolate the y, you left the -45 as it was. Goplat 05:31, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
D'oh! --Anon

eating disorders

Dear Sir/Madam I`d like to ask you about the author of subject eating disorders.I`m student BCUC college- health study. I`m writting essay about eating disorders as a woman`s illness,I`m using some of your material from wikipedia,but I need to know who wrote that article.

Thank you very much for your help. Sincerely Michaela Petekova E-mail

The people who contributed to the article can be found at the page's history. If you need to cite your sources, go to Wikipedia:Citing Wikipedia. Hope that helps. Mgm|(talk) 08:38, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)

self-destructing dvd's

I've recently heard about the new temporary dvds, that one can acquire(I'm not sure if that would be owning or renting). Is their actual encoding different from standard DVDs? To put it bluntly, could they be copied onto one's computer in the same way? Rhymeless | (Methyl Remiss) 09:47, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

The self-destructing DVD is based on a chemical process that makes the DVD unreadable after a certain amount of time.[5] Basically, there is a translucent film over the DVD that reacts with air and slowly turns opaque over the course of time. So there's really nothing preventing you from ripping it to your computer while it is still readable. There actually hasn't been much interest in this type of media, but there are some exceptions.--Cvaneg 14:57, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Also, as i recall, their used to be Divx disks (I believe it is not related to the codec) which would not play on a Divx DVD player after a certain amount of time (48 hours). I think the way it worked was that the DVD player went online and registered the Divx disk and checked the registry every time you tried to play it. Also the system allowed you to buy the DVD (which basically removed all restrictions on the DVD). BrokenSegue 00:24, 19 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Cards games involving only two players

I need some suggestions for good card games that involve only 2 players. Most that I am familiar with need more players (hearts, poker, bridge). ike9898 15:32, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)

Cribbage, War --Cvaneg 16:32, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I like Piquet myself (though our article on it is a bit odd as it stands). --Camembert
Casino is basically for two, although four can play. We don't have an article on it. I carry a deck of cards and the rules to Casino in my backpack for stranding situations. Likewise there's no article on Russian Bank a sort of solitaire for two, and there's also double solitaire. The web site alphabetical list of card games, with rules, has dozens of games for 2 players. Ortolan88 03:03, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)
In Italy we have many card game to be played by two player. Some of them may play by haw many player you want (at least 2) some other exists in 2 player or 4 player version. There are not article on English wikipedia nor in Italian wikipedia. I have found some interesting url in English Briscola (I can not find a traslation it has no meaning in Italian too) ,other fomous Italian card game playable by two player are Scopa (broom) and Scala 40 (ledder 40 or stair 40 or better 40 scale) AnyFile 18:57, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)
Here's a game for two - snap. Or try shithead. Another great one is one that u make up yourself. Like snap, apart from everytime a certain number comes up you have to do something silly, like fall on the floor or scream like a dog.
Poker can be played by 2 people (not unusually, but compare to Contract bridge which absolutely requires 4 players. An example of this which is not just theoretical would be a heads-up (2 player) freeze-out (play until all chips are gone) tournament, which incidentally although involving betting of play chips, could be played solely for pride and not money, as other non-betting card games are.
Personally I like spit, a fast passed solitare like game. BrokenSegue 00:26, 19 Dec 2004 (UTC)

the movie Cast Away

Was Cast Away (2000) based on a true story? Was the man involved really an employee of FedEx? ike9898 15:39, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)

  • No, it's not based on a true story. You might be thinking of the movie "Castaway" (1986), about a UK businessman who goes to a deserted island with a woman he just met to recreate "adam and eve", or at least write a novel about it. That IS based on a true story. Terrapin 16:37, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
    • The true-story Castaway is a wikipedia article now. Jay 15:28, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

number of mammary glands or nipples

I want to know the number of mammary glands or nipples that different mammals have. The only two I know for sure are humans (2) and cows (4). ike9898 15:42, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)

According to [6], "the number of teats varies from 2 in Primates and the Marsupial mole, to 19 in the Pale-bellied oppossum." The number in pigs is apparently variable within single breeding lines based on ancestry and number of males in the litter [7]. According to the BBC, "most female mammals have twice as many teats as their average litter to make sure that none starve. A few (such as the Virginia opossum) give birth to more young than they can suckle, and so the 'slowest' young die from starvation." [8]. And the The Illustrated Book of Sexual Records says "The horse and elephant, for instance, have only two nipples; and though the cow has only one udder the single massive gland empties into four teats. The dog has five paired glands. The hog can have as many as eighteen mammae. Supernumerary nipples are common in many species, e.g. primates, rodents, ruminants. The largest number of nipples is present in Centetes, a primitive insectivore with twenty-two to twenty-four nipples and as many as thirty six young at birth." Does that help? Catherine\talk 02:28, 25 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I would like to clarify a point here. The Opossum is not a mammal, it is a marsupial. Marsupials go about birth and child-rearing a little differently than mammals. Phyzome is Tim McCormack 01:47, 2004 Dec 4 (UTC)
No. "Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch" is the first line from the marsupial article you just linked to. Rmhermen 03:02, Dec 4, 2004 (UTC)
Oops. My bad. I meant to write placental mammals (Placentalia. -- Phyzome is Tim McCormack 00:23, 2004 Dec 5 (UTC)

What happens if you put gasoline in a diesel engine

On a recent 'reality' TV show, the characters accidentally put gasoline in a diesel car. They realized their mistake and didn't start the car. But I was wondering what would have happened if they had started it up. ike9898 16:13, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)

  • The engine should run, but might not be real smooth. I seem to recall that Diesel engines can run on a lot of different fuels if needed (one of the reasons why Militaries use them). Putting diesel in a gasoline engine, however, would make the engine nearly inoperable, and may destroy it. Terrapin 16:44, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • Short answer: Don't do it. 18:54, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • Not quite so short answer, to the inverse question. In a fit of inattention, I once did this. The engine (a VW aircooled 4 cyl) ran for about 30 seconds and expired in a puff of white smoke out the exhaust. After draining the tank and a refill of real gasoline, a little cranking cleared the carburettor float tank and it started up, more than usually popping and wheezing. Ran OK after about 5 minutes of further clearing. I concur in the previous comment. ww 01:08, 10 Dec 2004 (UTC)


I have three questions: 1. I have a group of people whose behavior I am measuring. I measure it before the treatment, and find that x% of them do this behavior. I measure after the treatment and find y% do it. What statistical test do I need? I believe that the groups are normal, and I have randomly sampled. 2. Again, but I am looking at frequency of the behavior. What test do I need? 3. Is there a general decision tree anywhere that will help me to choose the right test? Thank you, Tada 18:28, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

1-2.I think what you need is a not particularly well known test call McNemar's test. It is appropriate for two-sample, matched pair data. The Chi-square test would not be appropriate in this case because the two data points, before and after, are not independent. I'm not a statistical expert, so get a 2nd opinion on this!
3. I have a decision tree in one of my books (Fundamental of Biostatistics 4th ed. by B. Rosner). Good luck! ike9898 19:28, Nov 23, 2004 (UTC)
1) If what you measured was whether a certain behavior is present of absent, then McNemar's test may be appropriate. For 2), a paired t-test or Wilcoxon test might work. However, you should probably consult with a local expert who can look at your data. If you're affiliated with a university, your local statistics department might offer a free consultation service or "clinic". --MarkSweep 21:18, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)

feed-to-meat ratio

Where can I find info about the general ratio of the feed necessary to grow a farmed animal to maturity versus the meat obtained? I know that for fish it's about 2 to 1, and for cows about 10 to 1. How about others? Mjklin 21:01, 2004 Nov 23 (UTC)

I'm far from an expert on this subject, but I think the numbers are going to vary depending on the kind of feed you give to the animal. (e.g. a pure grain feed will have different results than a mixture of grain an animal protein) -Cvaneg 21:36, 23 Nov 2004 (UTC)

what are the main animals in Norway?

Well, lemmings, of course, called lemen, and moose, called elg, reindeer ("good eating!"), several deer (hjort, rådyr), as well as squirrels (ekorn) and mice (mus), foxes (rev), and, on the northern islands, polar bears (isbjørn). They have fish and insects too, but I assume you were interested in mammals.Ortolan88 02:51, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC) (Member of the Isbjørnklubbe (Polar Bear Society) of Stavanger)

A couple of additions: bears and wolverines (jerv) used to be common throughout Norway but are pretty much extinct (the last remaining bears in the wild can be found in Pasvikdalen in the extreme northeast). Polar bears, to the best of my knowledge, do not live in mainland Norway; the northern isles (Svalbard etc), where lots of polar bears can be found, are so far north from the continent that saying polar bears are common in Norway is a tad bit misleading. One insect species that has to be mentioned is the mosquito - literally millions of them live in the swampy areas north of the polar circle, nasty little buggers, about the only good thing to be said about them is that they don't carry malaria -- Ferkelparade π 15:06, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC) (not a member of isbjørnklubbe, but I've been to northern Norway often enough to know what I'm talking about re: mosquitoes :p)

We'd be glad to have you in Isbjørnklubbe but I must point out that I did say "and, on the northern islands, polar bears". Ortolan88 17:46, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Most Norwegian species, like everywhere else, are beetles. Most of the rest are Lepidoptera. We tend to only write about big fluffy things in an encyclopedia though. Dunc| 15:19, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)
Very good point. But by biomass and or number, I think certain types of worms are greater. There are more species of beetle, but by numbers of them, I saw some documentary where worms win. Possibly it was nematodes. The climate in Norway could conceivably limit this though.
On the claim of nastiness for Norwegian mosquitoes, well.... In Montana (US northern state) the mosquitoes are so big... There's a story about two Montana mosquitoes who flew over the crest of a hill and saw a herd of cattle. One said to the other, "Should we eat here or take them home?" Not too far from the truth actually. ww 01:15, 10 Dec 2004 (UTC)
Norway's mean soil depth of 7 cm could limit the worm population. :-) ✏ Sverdrup 21:37, 15 Dec 2004 (UTC)


Could someone familiar with jungian psychology please factcheck Enantiodroma? The term gives worryingly few google hits and was created by a user with no past editing history. Thanks. --fvw* 05:19, 2004 Nov 24 (UTC)

It's misspelled: I've moved it to enantiodromia. It is indeed an actual term in analytical psychology. - Nunh-huh 07:29, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Ah, google much more helpful given that. Thanks! --fvw* 08:10, 2004 Nov 24 (UTC)

Magnetic forces

  1. What determines the strength of the attractive force between fixed magnets (bar magnets, for example)?
  2. Is this the magnetomotive force?
  3. How is the force related to the magnetic flux density?

--η♀υωρ 07:24, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

On point (2): no, it isn't. I just added a note to the magnetomotive force article to explain this. MMF is just the amount of current, multiplied by the number of loops, that generates a given magnetic field. The use of the word "force" in this phrase dates from a time before anybody knew better. --Heron 09:46, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

On points (1) and (3): the flux density is a measure of the strength of the magnet's field at a given point, not a measure of the total field. I'm not sure how the size of the whole field is expressed - perhaps it's the magnetic dipole moment, or the total flux in webers. Anyway, the force of attraction between two magnets depends on the shapes, relative orientation and separation distance of the magnets, as well as their strength. Mathematically, you would use the principle of virtual work to calculate the force between them. I see we don't have an article on that yet, although I remember seeing it in Wikipedia:requested articles. (Hint) --Heron 11:56, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Here is an excellent web page on the subject. The formula looks useful. F is force in newtons, m is pole strength in webers, μ is the permeability of the intervening medium in tesla metres per ampere, and r is the separation in metres. This works for two magnetic poles separated by a large distance. --Heron 12:28, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Editorial note: I have add this new information to the magnetomotive force and magnet articles. --Heron 14:12, 25 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Name of movie

I'm not able to recollect the name of a movie which has the futuristic plot of people having to live in skyscrapers because there is no longer oxygen left at ground level. The hero and his dad are fire-fighter kind of guys who climb the vents of the buildings during emergencies. The dad gets killed and the son is framed or something like that. I remember a tag line like 'Air tight' but searching on Google didn't help me out. Jay 14:44, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

I don't know the movie, but it's a pretty unlikely scenario, air at altitude is thinner (lower pressure) than at ground level, so one would expect the greatest concentration of gasses to be at gl. I guess the only way this might be is if the was heavier than air polution, but its tenuous! Mark Richards 16:28, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I dunno either. But has a special section for these kinds of queries (and the sorts of visitors that are likely to know). --bodnotbod » .....TALKQuietly) 20:15, Nov 24, 2004 (UTC)

How much fructose do I use equivilant to sugar

Hmmm, a little bit more info would be helpful. What kind of sugar do you want fructose to be equivalent to? It's a sugar compound itself. Also, in what context do we have to see this, is it an experiment, are you brewing beer? Mgm|(talk) 17:23, Nov 24, 2004 (UTC)

Are you looking for a relative sweetness scale? According to this one, [9] fructose is 40% sweeter than table sugar (sucrose). About 0.7 tsp fructose would be as sweet in a drink as 1 tsp sucrose. alteripse 17:50, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

I've seen estimates of relative sweetness that suggest fructose to be considerably sweeter than this. I guess I would suggest consulting a cookbook of diabetic recipes as fructose is often used as a sugar substitute as it reduces the total easily absorbed carbohydrate ingested and can even reduce to zero the glucose (or glucose equivalent) ingested. Fructose (or to be exact, high fructose corn syrup) is used in the beverage industry (ie, soft drinks) as it weighs less (and must cost less) than sucrose (regular sugar) for a given sweetening effect. ww 01:21, 10 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Gestures used in Rapping

Is there a term which refers to the characteristic hand gestures frequently employed by rappers during their performances? — Matt 15:58, 24 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Ramon de Campoamor

Do you ahve any information on the biography of the 19th century Spanish poet Ramon de Campoamor? I would like to know his genealogy as completely as possible. I know he had no children, but who are his siblings, parents, & grandparents? ~anon

I'm afraid neither the English nor Spanish Wikipediae have an article on him yet; give this Google search a look. Do you think you could write up a decent three- to five-paragraph summary of why he is important for us? Just click on the red link above to create the article and enter your summary, and we'll take it from there. Thanks! Catherine\talk 01:27, 25 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Google appliance

  1. What is a Google appliance?
  2. How do they work?
  3. How much do they cost?

--η♀υωρ 01:13, 25 Nov 2004 (UTC)

3. (educational pricing available) [10]

  • GB-1001 $28,000 for 150,000 documents, $50,000 for 300,000 documents, secure system crawling additional $10,000
  • GB-5005 $230,000, includes one or two collections of up to 1.5 million documents each, secure system crawling
  • GB-8008 $450,000 for an an 8u server rack with secure system crawling, additional load balancing features, and capacity for up to 5 collections of 4 million documents each.
  1. It's a machine that does searches. It's a yellow rack-mount device that for some reason resembles The Cheat.
  2. It crawls the servers you specify, then uses fancy google algorithms to perform searches on what was crawled.
See [11]-- Cyrius| 01:55, 25 Nov 2004 (UTC)
A question you didn't ask, but about which folks might be curious, is "why would I buy one of these, when I could rely, as wikipedia does, on the normal google website?". The appliance is sold to large businesses or government organisations, and they use it to crawl and then provide search on confidential intranets. I used to work for a Fortune-100 company, the employees of which were pretty good about making webpages for their internal projects ("who we are, what we're doing, why, when, and for whom") but not at all good about getting this information into the central directory. I'd have killed for a google-appliance search, as the existing intranet search (based, I think, on htdig) was poor. A problem for the appliance (as for all intranet searches) is that many internal sites are protected - sometimes for commercial in-confidence reasons, sometimes because of privacy and data protection laws, frequently for financial or legal privity, and rather too often for plain old internecine parochialism. - John Fader

Acidity scale?

Someone mentioned Terner degrees in relation to the acidity of milk, yoghurt and other related products. What does this measure and how does it relate to the more common pH scale? Mgm|(talk) 11:46, Nov 25, 2004 (UTC)

Just a little side remark. pH, by itself, is not a very good description of the acidic or basic effects of a solution, because pH does not tell you what happens to the solution if it is diluted or put in contact with an acid or a base. On the other hand, that's something that matters a lot when estimating effects of the solution in, say, biological contexts. See buffer solution. David.Monniaux 07:35, 10 Dec 2004 (UTC)

airport Kuvait

Airport in Kuwait? In any case, too vague. Peter O. (Talk) 19:10, Nov 25, 2004 (UTC)
Maybe Kuwait International Airport, externally at []? It's the only one in Category:Airports of Kuwait at the moment..... Catherine\talk 05:45, 26 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Tekasa family

Moved out of the Village pump. Peter O. (Talk) 19:08, Nov 25, 2004 (UTC)

Tekasa family November 24, 2004

I'm trying to research my father-in-law's name and family. John Milton Tekasa was born in Serbia around 1920, his mother's name was Kathy (Katherine - Katharine) or Cathy (Catherine - Catharine), I'm not sure about the father's name but it could also have been John. The three of them moved to the United States of America in the 1930's. Not long after arriving in the U.S. the senior Mr. Tekasa passed away and a few years later the wife remarried a man with the last name of Hansen.

Any information or assistance would be appreciated, thank you.

Matt Hart

I'm sorry, but Wikipedia is not a genealogy site, so unless he was in some way famous it's kind of beyond our scope. A general suggestion; none of these names sounds typically Serbian, I'd guess they were Anglicised. --Robert Merkel 03:05, 26 Nov 2004 (UTC)
You will find links to webpages and mailing lists that may be of more help at Cyndi's List of genealogy sites relevant to Eastern Europe, including Serbia. - Nunh-huh 00:45, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Chinese proverb

Hello I'm looking for an English equivalent of the meaning of this Chinese proverb: 點石成金 which means, you can turn a stone into gold if you add some value to it. It implies to change something not valuable into something very valuable. Is there a proverb in English that carries a similar meaning?

I've been looking at the web but can't find any websites. Any pointers/ or even answers would be much appreciated.

Many thanks Rebecca Fong

The Scots have one (and please correct my spelling on this someone, Scots English is far more alien to me than most Spanish), "Many a mickle maks a muckle," meaning that lots of little things add up to something big. -- Jmabel | Talk 22:08, Nov 25, 2004 (UTC)
The proverb is properly "many a little makes a mickle" ("mickle" and "muckle" both mean "much") but the nonsensical version you quote is popular among non-Scots speakers. Gdr 02:07, 2004 Nov 26 (UTC)

Possibly, 'Many hands make light work'.

Also, though not a proverb, it reminds me of the East European fable of the Stone soup. This story was often used as a prefix for explaining the benefits of early open source software collaborations.

Less appropriately there is the phrase 'you have the Midas touch', which refers to the mythical King Midas who was able to turn items into gold by touching them. However 'the Midas touch' usually only relates to an individual's skill at making something succeed, not collaboration. -- Solipsist 12:07, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)

If the sense of the original actually is along the lines of "things of great value may begin with things of small value" then the "mickle" one fits, or perhaps "the greatest voyage begins with but a single step" or "take care of your pennies and the dollars will take care of themselves". Even more exact is the common metaphor (not in aphorism form that I know of) of the grain of sand in the pearl. However, it strikes me that the sense might be rather the opposite, a cautionary (even cynical) tale not to overvalue the worth of raw materials and underestimate the cost of labour needed to process it; after all, only a fool would imagine that he could profitably turn a stone into gold. The English equivalent that comes to mind is "that and a buck will get you a cup of coffee"—you need to adjust the money figure so it's recognized as the full price of coffee. It's trivial to find matching pairs of aphorisms that mean the opposite of each other, and with translated ones it's never really clear whether they're meant to be taken straight or ironically. Sharkford 15:08, 2004 Nov 29 (UTC)
Take care of your pennies and yor pounds will take care of themselves. Dunc| 15:24, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)
Thomas Edison is quoted as saying, "Genius is one percent inpiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." -Rholton 15:51, 7 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Stephen Hawking's voice synthesizer

How does Hawking's voice synthesizer work? How does he input into it what he wants to say? — J3ff 02:35, 26 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Prof. Hawking has written an overview of his synthesizer system. -- Cyrius| 02:45, 26 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Thanks for the url. — J3ff 02:49, 26 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Lebesgue covering dimension

  1. What is the Lebesgue covering dimension of a circle?
  2. Is our definition off by one?

--η♀υωρ 19:26, 26 Nov 2004 (UTC)

AIDS deaths

How many people have died of AIDS each year (individual yearly results) since 1980? Thanks, anon

The numbers for 1999-2004 are:
which also means that the majority of people who have ever died from AIDS [at least 23.1 million] have died in the last five years. Rmhermen 21:29, Nov 26, 2004 (UTC)
Also see Avert's summary. --ᓛᖁ♀ 21:48, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Style of traditional Chinese music

I've been searching everywhere for the name of this kind of Chinese music but I've come up empty. It can be heard during many traditional Chinese songs; the singers stop "singing" and instead start rhythmically talking, almost like "rap." In one instance I saw a performer using hand clackers to set the beat. --anon

Can you provide a specific example of what you're referring to (e.g. a downloadable music file)? It's not clear to me what you mean by "traditional Chinese songs" -- does that include the many regional musical theater forms? Why do you put "singing" in scare quotes? --MarkSweep 21:44, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)

"mopery" definition

I'm looking for a legal definition of the word "mopery." I'm disinclined to put full faith in the current contents of the article Mopery without a little more proof, as I think that information originated in the movie "Revenge of the Nerds." Joyous 05:15, Nov 27, 2004 (UTC)

According to the Word Detective at this site:

Well, if it makes you feel any better, you are not alone. I, too, was threatened with arrest for "mopery" back in 1970 by a gendarme in the employ of the Columbus, Ohio police department. As I knew I was guilty of no crime beyond a bad attitude and a subversive haircut, I presumed he was joking and simply walked away. But several days later I heard that a friend had actually been arrested, booked and jailed for "mopery," so I guess the relevant law really existed on the books (and, knowing Columbus, I'd guess that it probably still does).

You're also not alone in being unable to pin down an exact legal definition of "mopery." I seem to have misplaced my copy of Black's Law Dictionary (how one misplaces a book that heavy is another question), and none of the online legal dictionaries I have found contain the term. Nonetheless, all the references that I have been able to find in other materials indicate that the definition of "mopery" furnished to me by a friendly lawyer back in 1970 was accurate. "Mopery," at least in Columbus, Ohio, consists of "walking down the street with no clear destination or purpose." "Mopery" is thus essentially "loitering while walking," and, like laws against loitering and vagrancy, functions as a sort of legal wildcard, a one-size-fits-all charge that can easily be applied to annoying people by irritable authorities. "Mopery" is clearly based on verb "to mope," which, in its original sense, meant "to wander about aimlessly, moving without the guidance of thought." (Our modern "mope" meaning "to lay about bored and depressed" is a later development of the word.) The verb "to mope" first appeared in English in the 16th century and is of unknown origin, but was a big favorite of Shakespeare, who used it in at least three of his plays. "Mopery" is also frequently invoked for comic effect by modern writers, especially Thomas Pynchon, who seems to love the word. The film "Revenge of the Nerds" also contains a reference to "mopery," but erroneously defines it as "exposing oneself to a blind person."

  • Black's Law Dictionary (7th ed.) contains no entry for the word and it does not appear in the index of the Ohio Revised Code. There are two definitions in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th ed. (2002): "1. Mopish behavior; a fit of moping" and "2. Loitering or other petty lawbreaking, esp. when used as an excuse to arrest or harass someone. US." PedanticallySpeaking 16:56, Nov 27, 2004 (UTC)
When I was covering the criminal courts in Chicago back in the 1960s, mopery with intent was the term applied to the general case of rounding people up to clear the streets for one reason or other, but there was no such law on the books in Chicage. That is, it was a joke. We also used the term Mickey the Mope as a general name for routine, low-grade criminal defendants. I am betting that mopery is not on the books anywhere, despite testimony to the contrary above. It is possible that some policeman didn't know it was a joke either.
Mopery does not appear in the OED. It is given as a synonym for vagrancy in Websters 3, as meaning "mopish behavior", or a slang expression for "violation of a minor law or imaginary rule" in the Random House Unabridged. Nor does it appear in my original 19th century edition of American Dictionary of the English Language by Noah Webster, LL.D. Noah defines a mope as "a stupid or low-spirited person, a drone", which goes along with my Mickey the Mope above. Ortolan88 00:57, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

PS - Going to fix the article soon. Ortolan88 17:46, 6 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Charles Graner

What does the middle inital "A" stand for? Neutrality/talk 05:47, Nov 27, 2004 (UTC)

Don't know, but it shows up on his charge sheet, so we don't have another MacArthur situation. -- Cyrius| 05:56, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Also, what is his date of birth? Neutrality/talk 06:01, Nov 27, 2004 (UTC)

His DOB has not been disclosed to the media... I can't find his DOB anywhere online. -- AllyUnion (talk) 09:04, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)

The largest battle fought before 1500AD?

What is believed to have been the largest battle fought before 1500AD? (Most soldiers/warriers involved in a single battle). The Battle of Hattin?

probably shortly before 1500? List of battles has:
1475: Battle of Podul Inalt, 10 January: Stefan cel Mare defeted a 120.000 men strong army of the Ottomans
dab 12:33, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • Herodotus says the Persian army at Thermopylae was 3.4 million, and even more levelheaded modern historians say 250,000 to 300,000. It's not really that grand a battle, as the fighting took place in a narrow pass, and so most of those thousands of Persians didn't really get to fight. - John Fader
so the greatest battle of Antiquity consisted mainly of soldiers queueing and streching their necks to see what was happening in front :) dab 13:09, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • The Battle of Bouvines was bigger than Hattin (well, according to our articles on them). And most of the First Crusade was bigger than Hattin, Battle of Dorylaeum for example. And although the numbers for Roman battles are probably just as exaggerated as for the Greek ones, they certainly a larger army altogether than anyone in the middle ages, didn't they? The Battle of Cannae was fairly large, it seems. Adam Bishop 20:02, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Pulitzer Prize for Fiction

Has anyone besides Margaret Mitchell and Harper Lee won the prize for a first novel? PedanticallySpeaking 16:50, Nov 27, 2004 (UTC)

  • I thought Jhumpa Lahiri's book was a collection of stories, not a novel. PedanticallySpeaking 17:49, Nov 29, 2004 (UTC)
  • Could be. I did a pretty quick scan of the list. --jpgordon{gab} 15:28, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Steady state

Would the Unruh effect predict cosmic microwave background radiation in an expanding universe? --ᓛᖁ♀ 22:28, 27 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Unless my maths has gone awry, you would have to be accelerating pretty quickly to get a temperature of 4K from the Unruh effect - around 1021 m/s2. -- ALoan (Talk) 16:38, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Details referring to MBE(Member of the Britsh Empire)


PLEASE EMAIL THE LINK TO THE 'LIST' (IF IT EXISTS, once again) at: <<<>>> Thankyou.

There is very unlikely to be one online; I can't find a list of numbers, but the order has been extant since 1917, with no limits on the number able to hold the MBE (it's the lowest of five classes of the Order of the British Empire); however, "no more than" about 1500 may be created each year. As you can guess, that's a hell of a lot of names.
HM Government will have names, but I doubt there's a single compiled list that's been published (and therefore wound up in a library you could check). Shimgray 14:42, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)
The honours lists are available at the London Gazette website, but you'd have to go through every list individually to make a list of all MBEs, as there's no "master list" available online. Proteus (Talk) 15:33, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)

UK Buildings with `CD`

What do the initials `CD` mean when carved on a building, normally followed by a date, in England. (UK) --Bob 19:30, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Hrm. Knowing the dates generally associated would make it easier, or the buildings; do you have an example? CR would probably have been Carolus Rex, signifying King Charles, but I'm not sure about CD. Shimgray 21:01, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I've had Cromwell Defender suggested, but not sure about that. If you know where the inscription is, it may also help to work out what it means. Shimgray 21:10, 28 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Hmm - it would help to know the sort of building, where it is, and the date. Rather more prosaically, could the "C" stand for "construction/constructed" (or something similar in Latin) and/or the "D" for "date" or "datum" or "during"? Or could it be the initials of the architect, builder or owner? -- ALoan (Talk) 12:48, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • It might be something in Latin, but usually the word "Fecit" is used to identify the creator or the person who comissioned an artwork or structure. The Trevi Fountain in Rome says "Fecit" the name of the pope that had it built, and a date. I checked the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and the only "CD" abbreviation that might appear on a building was "Civil Defence". PedanticallySpeaking 17:57, Nov 29, 2004 (UTC)
  • I would suggest a more prosaic origin -- "Cd" as a very abbreviated form of "Constructed". While I have never seen that particular abbreviation, I think it may be likelier than the alternatives. Jwrosenzweig 22:41, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)
  • I agree some more context, such as the region of England or time frame would be helpful (or even a photo). It might be a mason's mark which were frequently a combination of initials (but usually in a discrete position on the building) [12]. CD would then be a mason working in your area. Alternatively it could be a fire mark to indicate that the building had fire insurance in the 18th/19th century. But these were usually metal plaques and more elaborate. For examples [13]. I also recall seeing chiseled marks which may be related to datum points for the Ordnance Survey, these tend to be near ground level, but I can't find any references for them. (In any case, there's two obvious missing articles for someone). -- Solipsist 19:08, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Royal Horse Artillery

History during first World War

One of these days, I will get round to writing summaries for the various regiments; a bit more interesting than the divisional entries. But anyway... [14] or [15] may be what you're looking for, and [16] details deployments as of 04/08/14. It may help if you detail better what you're looking for; a book could be written (and probably has) on the topic, and it's easier to answer a specific question. Shimgray 14:38, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Yasus Mountain

My daughter has a science project which involves researching Yasus. We have discovered it is a mountain in Ethiopia but cannot find further information or an image as is required. Could you please suggest websites or even books, world book and geography books appear to have nothing. Please send results to LMSJJS3222 [a t]

Mount Yasus is 3,500 metres high, according to [17], but no further information seems to be on the web. Neither our List of mountains nor Geography of Ethiopia make any mention of it at all, even though the latter is very detailed (based as it is on the 1911 Britannica). Given the mountain's height, it is most likely on the central high plateau, near lake Tsana, but where exactly is anybody's guess. The mountain's height doesn't make it particularly exceptional among its peers. As for getting pictures... I wouldn't know where to begin if your local library has nothing. Mailing Ethiopians (say, the embassy of Ethiopia) is a long shot, but might sadly also be your best shot.
Then there was an emperor Yasus the Great (1662?–1706), according to [18], but the only additional note is that Yasus was the last strong ruler before a prolonged period of confusion and decline, during which Ethiopia broke up into separate regions. Our History of Ethiopia doesn't mention him, but according to our List of Emperors of Ethiopia there ruled a Iyasu Yohannes from 1682 to 1706, and that'll be our old pal Yasus right there. Since it's a science project, I doubt it's about the emperor (or Yasus Afari, a Jamaican dub poet), but just in case; in general, Yasus seems to be a variant form of Jesus in some languages.
Hope any of this helps. JRM 19:55, 2004 Dec 7 (UTC)

iec 331

We have been instructed to refer to specification iec 331 for flameproof cables. However we are unable to find any reference or information on iec 331. Does anybody know if such a standard exists or if it has been superseded by a later standard?

Google gives lots of IEC 331 compatible cables; this paper [19] might be interesting, as it notes:
The long standing IEC 331:1970 was replaced in 1999 by IEC60331 Parts 11,21,23 and 25. This revision introduced specific procedures for data and optical cables, together with a well-defined and controlled burner system similar to that used in EN50200.
Otherwise, googling on "iec 331" seems to indicate that the standard wants it to withstand 750°C for three hours, but you'd have to find a copy of the actual standard - try a technical library, or your national standards bureau? - for confirmation and for the details. Shimgray 16:40, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Try the International Electrotechnical Commission website - - they sell IEC 60331. Results for search on 60331


This has been bugging me for a while...Does anyone know whether the term hanyō is a term that actually exists in Japanese mythology, or is it only used in manga and anime? Also, if it is in mythology, does anyone have any good sources of information about it? Josh 16:30, Nov 29, 2004 (UTC)

I want to say that hanyō is indeed a Japanese mythological term, but I'm not sure if, for instance, the negative connotations to it apply beyond Inuyasha. Those might be a part of it, as a matter of record, or perhaps could simply be adopted as a part of the storyline. On the other hand the connotations could simply be an extension or displacement of the gaijin concept as it relates to half-blooded individuals. Rhymeless | (Methyl Remiss) 11:39, 13 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Dressing code

Where can I found information about deressing code (casual, formal, casul formal and so on)? AnyFile 18:19, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

That's a confusing question. Are you asking about how these terms are/were used in some particular time and place, or what? -- Jmabel | Talk 20:19, Nov 29, 2004 (UTC)
I think the questioner means dress code. In previous times, everyone dressed alike and there was no need for a dress code. In the 1940s, my father never went out in public without a tie and hat, for instance. No dress code was needed. By the 1950s, when I was in high school, dress codes started appearing, permitting or not permitting blue jeans, for instance. No "sunback" dresses for girls is one I remember. Nowadays, since people either dress as they please, or do not know what is proper attire anymore (or both), it is necessary for offices, churches, and schools to state what kinds of clothing are acceptable. These codes are further divided into formal, informal, etc.
One of the benefits of the 21st century is that it is almost impossible to be the worst-dressed person nowadays; no matter where you go, someone will be dressed worse.Ortolan88 01:12, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I'm guessing the poster has been invited to a function and told it's "casual" or "semi-formal" or whatever and is wondering what that means. The answer depends so much on context: work? school? someone's home? morning, afternoon or evening? summer or winter? East Coast U.S. or West Coast U.S.? With a bit of such info we could maybe offer some advice (free, and worth every penny). Otherwise you'll need to find someone locally in-the-know and ask for help. Sharkford 15:09, 2004 Nov 30 (UTC)

What I was looking for was a standard explanation of what the various term (fomal, casual, dressy casual, smart casual. and so on). I have to say you that I am not English speaking native. I have found many time speaking of dressing code (in resturant list web site, and in many other site). I found this many more than I am usaul in Italy (not that there is no dressing code in Italy. It is not as formalised as I can see in US. I am not used that somebody in a resturant website told you how you have to dress. You are aspect to know how you have to dress (usually according to the price of the resturant). So what I am looking for maybe something like a traslation of the term casual, formal and so on. We have in Italian very similar words but I want to know what does thei really means to an English-speaker. Rather than a translation I prefear an explanation. I tought that it should be easy to find plenty of web page speaking on this argument but my search on google and similar give me a lots of page saying that in this place this dressing cose was in use but no a description of the variuos dressing code. So I asked here. It it not importont so do not waste your time in helping me in this couriosity. By the way there is not an article about Dressing code on wikipedia AnyFile 12:14, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)

The trouble is, there is no standard interpretation. What these terms mean can very from place to place, even from organisation to organisation. In past times there were better defined standards - "Black tie" meant a specific combination of clothes, not just a tie colour. The terms you talk about are much less defined. Definitely ask someone local. If you are asking about restaurants in the US, then the dress code is probably not as strict as you think it is. DJ Clayworth 18:14, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)

We could probably assemble a table of sorts on the different interpretations. Intrigue 22:58, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Here's a quick go for the US at least
  • Casual - anything clean and neat. Can vary a bit though. Usually is used to distinguish the fact that jeans, shorts and t-shirts are allowed. Could include tennis shoes (Such as Nike, Inc. makes) or sandals. If this dress level is specified it usually is used to distinguish from more formal, but may still mean that ripped or overly dirty or outlandish clothing is not allowed.
  • Business casual - a bit more formal. It usually means Khaki (not jeans) pants and a collared shirt for men. The other requirement for men's pants here and greater in formality is that they don't have extra pockets below the normal ones, such as cargo pants do. It is more difficult to define for women, because women have more acceptable options in business casual. For women here are things that would qualify: skirt (not too fancy) and blouse or sweater, any neat pants that are not jeans. Usually tennis shoes are not allowed, and instead brown or black leather shoes are required for men. Any shoe that is not too fancy and is not a tennis s
  • Formal - usually a suit and tie would qualify for men, though a few events require a tuxedo. Some events for men require just a shirt and tie and decent pants. This is about as fancy as any restaraunt in the US would require, with a few exceptions I'm sure. Formal for women usually requires a dress or skirt and fancy top, both usually with shoes with heels, such as high heels. I suppose formal would allow women to wear dress pants and a blouse, but I've never seen that outside of business formal that I can remember.
  • Business formal - almost always includes a suit and tie for men and for women either a skirt or pantsuit, or a dress.
As mentioned by others it is very rare that a restaraunt's dress code is truly strict. For almost every restaraunt in the US the equivalent of business casual is fine, with only those specifically mentioning formal that require any more. By the way, don't put too much stock in many of the articles I linked to. That in fact highlighted a lot of articles that need some significant work. Hope I helped some. - Taxman 00:20, Dec 2, 2004 (UTC)

Thank you very much! More than I desired. I thouth it were more seasy to find a page on the web about this

Do you think it will worth to put the above text in a new article Dressing code? AnyFile 19:44, 2 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Well in the US it would be called dress code, or more generally and better I think, standards of dress. You can do that if you like, but the bigger problem is that what I wrote is all my general opinion and it varies so much from place to place. I have travelled in many parts of the US, but I don't know local customs everywhere. - Taxman 20:17, Dec 2, 2004 (UTC)

Nicaraguan girl in England

If a 19 year-old woman from Nicaragua who has just finished school (A levels or whatever the equivalent is called) wants to spend a year in England, what are her options? Would she be able to work there? Would this automatically mean working as an au pair? Where would she have to apply? <KF> 18:22, Nov 29, 2004 (UTC)

No you can find also a regular job. What is essential is that you speak a good English. But if you want to be employed in UK you have to enter in UK as a job seeking and obtain a permission to work. I do not know how the rule are. The best source are Uk Embassy or Consulate or their website. If you enter to work as au pair may be there an easier (to do and obtain) procedure. AnyFile 18:29, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC) Take a look to [ ] and [ ] Try also Job Center AnyFile 18:41, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Thanks a lot, AnyFile. Any personal experiences? It would be great to hear from someone else, too. <KF> 00:50, Nov 30, 2004 (UTC)

You'll probably be in with a better bet if you make it clear you're not looking for permanent employment or residence, at a guess; UK immigration law is embarrassingly harsh these days (it's a pity, but there you go; it's politically easy to blame everything on Those Foreigners Messing The Place Up, and the tabloids like it). I'd suggest speaking to the Embassy as your first bet; if nothing else they might have some names for you to talk to... but, unfortunately, the Foreign Office is cheap, so the Ambassador is resident in Costa Rica and there isn't a consular office. On looking, you'll definitely need a visa; try playing around with Do I Need A Visa and Visa4UK. From vague memory, I think it may be easier to get a work permit if you are only intending to work for six months or less of the year (this is what most "working tourists" of your age I meet are on, but then they're mostly Commonwealth). No personal experience of this, for reasons of nationality ;-) Shimgray 01:39, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Thanks! <KF> 23:02, Nov 30, 2004 (UTC)

And if you become the au pair for a government minister's mistress, the minister will arrange the fast-tracking of your visa. Dunc| 15:29, 3 Dec 2004 (UTC)
See Blunkett Affair
And then be forced to resign a few weeks later. Here's to the end of imprisonment without trial and the planned identity cards. Fascist pig. Such a shame he had to go. Dunc| 22:34, 15 Dec 2004 (UTC)

playing DVDs with scratches

I rent DVDs and often they have scratches that make them unplayable. My question is, are some DVD players better than others with regard to playing sratched disks?

I take it you have tried polishing them with a soft cloth? Yes though, some players are more tollerant than others. Mark Richards 22:31, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)
I agree with Mark, both on his suggestion and the note that some players are better than others. I would suggest, though, that there will still be great variation between individual players -- that is, even if the scratched DVD plays fine on your friend's Sony 5000 DVD player, it might not play on your brother's Sony 5000. In my experience, each player has its own individual issues: the only reason I mention it is to encourage you not to necessarily trust any general brand or model as being "safe" until you've checked out the exact player you will be buying. Good luck. Jwrosenzweig 22:45, 29 Nov 2004 (UTC)
Follow-up Q: Would the 'progressive scan' feature help at all with reading scratched disks? ike9898 14:18, Nov 30, 2004 (UTC)
No. "Progressive scan" refers to how the video signal is sent to the television, it has nothing to do with how the player reads the disk. ("Scan" is the action of the electron beam moving over the phosphors in the TV.) Sharkford 15:17, 2004 Nov 30 (UTC)
Why not get a CD/DVD cleaner/polisher machine? I've seen positive results from one of the motor driven ones. It polishes the surface and takes out some of the minor scratches. Presumably if repeated it could get out more. I'm sure some of them out there are crap, and have no idea which specific brands are the best. - Taxman 23:43, Dec 1, 2004 (UTC)
Household tip: use some dishwashing detergent to polish the CD/DVD. The detergent will polish off minor scratches and soften the edges of major ones, I've been able to get some badly scratched CDs playable for almost no cost. Additional tip: this might not be applicable for DVDs, but with audio CDs, I've noticed that even CDs that are scratched so badly that any audio CD player will barf can often be ripped to MP3 (or whatever format you prefer) without too much trouble. I frankly don't know what differences there are in the reading procedure between audio playback and reading them as data CDs, so I have no idea what causes this, but it works pretty reliably. -- Ferkelparade π 23:55, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)

I've had good results with this with scratched DVDs too. I think that most ripping programs will retry several times on an error, while a player will skip. If it's possible to read it, the ripper will get it after a few tries, while the player will stop trying. Intrigue 18:15, 2 Dec 2004 (UTC)

Remember to wipe out from the center, not in a circular direction. This way, if you should cause a new scratch or smear, it will go perpendicular to the track lines (and cause less damage). Circular damage can wipe out a contiguous section of the DVD or CD. -- Phyzome is Tim McCormack 00:35, 2004 Dec 5 (UTC)


I have RedHat 9.1 on an x86 machine, a fresh install, but I cannot for the life of me figure out how to install anything, I want to install GRASS GIS. Any help? Linuxnoob 00:03, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

If you're not compiling from source code, then you'll probably want to install using the RPM Package Manager. I've no experience with GRASS GIS, but this page might provide some more info on obtaining the source and/or relevant RPMs. For RPMs in general see Best wishes, David Iberri | Talk 00:43, Nov 30, 2004 (UTC)
I hate to be a distribution bigot, and there's nothing wrong (other, perhaps, than its age) with RH9.1, but I've found it's particularly easy to manage software updates and additions in Ubuntu Linux (more than my mixed experiences with Redhat, Fedora, and Mandrake). I just checked its synaptic package manager program (which really is ideal for the linux newbie, and frankly is just plain less hassle for a non-noob like me) and it offers an install of Grass GIS and the associated documentation (with just a couple of button pushes). So if you get stuck, and redhat makes you pull out as much hair as it made me, Ubuntu is worth a look at. I'm told SuSE Linux is similarly easy to manage too, but I've no experience of it. - Lakeman (who can't sign in today, it seems)
I suggest you try apt-get by downloading it here: [20] then install it by using the command rpm -Uvh (file.rpm). apt-get is very easy to use.
* apt-get install <package-name> (install a named package)
* apt-get update (recommended to do this first, this updates all the information for packages)
* apt-get upgrade (upgrades all packages and software on your system)
* apt-cache search <name of program or partial name of program> (searchs for a specific package)
-- AllyUnion (talk) 08:46, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)


Can anybody help me figure out whether Mort Meyerson, former CEO of Perot Systems, is the namesake of the Dallas-area Morton H Meyerson Symphony Center? Rhymeless | (Methyl Remiss) 07:43, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

how do you create a wikipedia

As in a wiki? Wikipedia uses the Mediawiki software. — Matt 15:36, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Kenya and space

What links/history/role has Kenya had with regard to space exploration? — Matt 15:36, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

I don't know much, but I'd suggest this 1999 speech at UNISPACE III by the Kenyan ambassador to the UN as a good place to start. Jwrosenzweig 21:22, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)
For those disinclined to read past the diplospeak, here's an interesting excerpt:
"...In 1964 Kenya signed a cooperation agreement with Italy on the peaceful exploration of outer space. This led to the establishment of a satellite rocket launching and tracking site known as San Marco, on the Kenyan Coast. The first satellite was successfully launched into orbit in 1967. In 1970 'Uhuru' was successfully launched from San Marco aboard an American built scout rocket. Over the next two decades eight satellites went up successfully. ... The 'Uhuru' Satellite experimentally verified the existence of Black holes which at that time was a significant discovery. "


  1. Which web browsers have good support for Inuktitut?
  2. Which books might be helpful for learning the language?
  3. Does anyone know of a good online lexicon (as opposed to an interactive dictionary such as the Nunavut Living Dictionary)?

--ᓛᖁ♀ 22:29, 30 Nov 2004 (UTC)

Bet you could ask the government of Nunavut -- Jmabel | Talk 23:58, Nov 30, 2004 (UTC)
  1. Exploder and Mozilla are fine if appropriate fonts are installed. I use Code 2001 and Aboriginal Serif and Sans Serif (and AiPaiNutaaq and AiPaiNuna on my Mac).
  2. Mick Mallon's Introductory Inuktitut (I don't have the ISBN at my office ISBN 1-896204-22-8) is the ONLY English language Inuktitut text that exists as far as I know. I have a copy from my salad days in Montreal. It is very eccentric, using a different writing scheme than either official Roman or syllabics, and has highly idiosyncratic terminology for different aspects of the language.
  3. No. Trust me, I've tried. Even procuring a good text dictionary for Inuktitut is not easy. Inuktitut: A multi-dialectal outline dictionary by (the unfortunately late) Alex Spalding (ISBN 1896204295) is reputedly the best in print. I am currently trying to obtain a copy, but it's a pain. ᑏᑎᕉ
I see; thank you! Do you know an easy way to write syllabics in Unicode? --ᓛᖁ♀ 17:53, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)
The keyboard layouts at AiPaiNunavik ought to work, but I haven't tested them. ᑏᑎᕉ 20:01, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)
What have you been using to enter syllabic characters? --ᓛᖁ♀ 22:13, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)
Copy and paste from a syllabics table, or failing that, the entities from Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics character table. Diderot 06:08, 2 Dec 2004 (UTC)

...Dah. Hahaha, I accidentally found a lexicon! X) [21] --ᓛᖁ♀ 21:20, 1 Dec 2004 (UTC)