Small-bias sample space

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My name is Jestine (34 years old) and my hobbies are Origami and Microscopy.

Here is my web site; ( In the mathematical field of general topology, a Dowker space is a topological space that is T4 but not countably paracompact.


If X is a normal T1 space (a T4 space), then the following are equivalent:

Dowker conjectured that there were no Dowker spaces, and the conjecture was not resolved until M.E. Rudin constructed one[2] in 1971. Rudin's counterexample is a very large space (of cardinality ) and is generally not well-behaved. Zoltán Balogh gave the first ZFC construction[3] of a small (cardinality continuum) example, which was more well-behaved than Rudin's. Using PCF theory, M. Kojman and S. Shelah constructed[4] a subspace of Rudin's Dowker space of cardinality that is also Dowker.


  1. C.H. Dowker, On countably paracompact spaces, Can. J. Math. 3 (1951) 219-224. Zbl. 0042.41007
  2. M.E. Rudin, A normal space X for which X × I is not normal, Fundam. Math. 73 (1971) 179-186. Zbl. 0224.54019
  3. Z. Balogh, "A small Dowker space in ZFC", Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 124 (1996) 2555-2560. Zbl. 0876.54016
  4. M. Kojman, S. Shelah: "A ZFC Dowker space in : an application of PCF theory to topology", Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 126(1998), 2459-2465.