# Tilde

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Refimprove |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Message box|ambox}} }} Template:SpecialChars

~
Tilde
Punctuation Word dividers General typography Intellectual property Currency apostrophe ( ’ ' ) brackets ( [ ], ( ), { }, ⟨ ⟩ ) colon ( : ) comma ( , ، 、 ) dash ( ‒, –, —, ― ) ellipsis ( …, ..., . . . ) exclamation mark ( ! ) full stop / period ( . ) hyphen ( ‐ ) hyphen-minus ( - ) question mark ( ? ) quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ”, ' ', " " ) semicolon ( ; ) slash / stroke / solidus ( /,  ⁄  ) interpunct ( · ) space ( ) ( ) ( ) ampersand ( & ) asterisk ( * ) at sign ( @ ) backslash ( \ ) bullet ( • ) caret ( ^ ) dagger ( †, ‡ ) degree ( ° ) ditto mark ( ″ ) inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ ) inverted question mark ( ¿ ) number sign / pound / hash / octothorpe ( # ) numero sign ( № ) obelus ( ÷ ) ordinal indicator ( º, ª ) percent, per mil ( %, ‰ ) plus and minus ( + − ) basis point ( ‱ ) pilcrow ( ¶ ) prime ( ′, ″, ‴ ) section sign ( § ) tilde ( ~ ) underscore / understrike ( _ ) vertical bar / broken bar / pipe ( ¦, | ) copyright symbol ( © ) registered trademark ( ® ) service mark ( ℠ ) sound recording copyright ( ℗ ) trademark ( ™ ) currency (generic) ( ¤ ) currency (specific) ( ) asterism ( ⁂ ) hedera ( ❧ ) index / fist ( ☞ ) interrobang ( ‽ ) irony punctuation ( ⸮ ) lozenge ( ◊ ) reference mark ( ※ ) tie ( ⁀ ) diacritical marks logic symbols whitespace characters non-English quotation style ( « », „ ” ) Chinese punctuation Hebrew punctuation Japanese punctuation Korean punctuation
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The tilde (Template:IPAc-en, Template:IPAc-en; ˜ or ~; also referred to informally as squiggly or squiggle(s)) is a grapheme with several uses. The name of the character comes from Portuguese and Spanish, from the Latin titulus meaning "title" or "superscription", though the term "tilde" has evolved and now has a different meaning in linguistics. Some may refer to it as a "flourish".

It was originally written over a letter as a scribal abbreviation, as a "mark of suspension", shown as a straight line when used with capitals. Thus the commonly used words Anno Domini were frequently abbreviated to Ao Dñi, an elevated terminal with a suspension mark placed above the "n". Such mark could denote the omission of one letter or several letters. This saved on the expense of the scribe's labour and the cost of vellum and ink. Mediaeval European charters written in Latin are largely made up of such abbreviated words with suspension marks; only uncommon words given in full. It has since acquired a number of other uses as a diacritic mark or a character in its own right. These are encoded in Unicode at Template:Unichar and Template:Unichar, and there are additional similar characters for different roles. In lexicography, the latter kind of tilde and the swung dash () are used in dictionaries to indicate the omission of the entry word.[1]

## Common use

This symbol (in English) informally[2] means "approximately", such as: "~30 minutes before" meaning "approximately 30 minutes before".[3] It can mean "similar to",[4] including "of the same order of magnitude as",[2] such as: "" meaning that Template:Mvar and Template:Mvar are of the same order of magnitude. Another approximation symbol is , meaning "approximately equal to"[3][4][5] the critical difference being the subjective level of accuracy: ≈ indicates a value which can be considered functionally equivalent for a calculation within an acceptable degree of error, whereas ~ is usually used to indicate a larger, possibly significant, degree of error. The tilde is also used to indicate equal to, or approximately equal to by placing it over the "=" symbol.

## Use by mediaeval scribes

File:MollandDB3.jpg
Text of Exeter Domesday Book of 1086

The text of the Domesday Book of 1086, relating for example, to the manor of Molland in Devonshire (see image right), is highly abbreviated as indicated by numerous tildes. The text with abbreviations expanded is as follows:

"Mollande tempore regis Edwardi geldabat pro iiii hidis et uno ferling. Terra est xl carucis. In dominio sunt iii carucae et x servi et xxx villani et xx bordarii cum xvi carucis. Ibi xii acrae prati et xv acrae silvae. Pastura iii leugae in longitudine et latitudine. Reddit xxiiii libras ad pensam. Huic manerio est adjuncta Blachepole. Elwardus tenebat tempore regis Edwardi pro manerio et geldabat pro dimidia hida. Terra est ii carucis. Ibi sunt v villani cum i servo. Valet xx solidos ad pensam et arsuram. Eidem manerio est injuste adjuncta Nimete et valet xv solidos. Ipsi manerio pertinet tercius denarius de Hundredis Nortmoltone et Badentone et Brantone et tercium animal pasturae morarum"

## Diacritical use

In some languages, the tilde is used as a diacritical mark ( ˜ ) placed over a letter to indicate a change in pronunciation, such as nasalization.

### Pitch

It was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, as a variant of the circumflex, representing a rise in pitch followed by a return to standard pitch.

### Abbreviation

Carta marina showing Finnish economy, with the captions Hic fabricantur naves and Hic fabricantur bombarde abbreviated

Later, it was used to make abbreviations in medieval Latin documents. When an n or m followed a vowel, it was often omitted, and a tilde (i.e., a small n) was placed over the preceding vowel to indicate the missing letter; this is the origin of the use of tilde to indicate nasalization (compare the development of the umlaut as an abbreviation of e.) The practice of using the tilde over a vowel to indicate omission of an n or m continued in printed books in French as a means of reducing text length until the 17th century. It was also used in Portuguese, Catalan and Spanish.

The tilde was also used occasionally to make other abbreviations, such as over the letter q ("") to signify the word que ("that").

### Nasalization

It is also as a small n that the tilde originated when written above other letters, marking a Latin n which had been elided in old Galician-Portuguese. In modern Portuguese it indicates nasalization of the base vowel: mão "hand", from Lat. manu-; razões "reasons", from Lat. rationes. This usage has been adopted in the orthographies of several native languages of South America, such as Guarani and Nheengatu, as well as in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and many other phonetic alphabets. For example, [ljɔ̃] is the IPA transcription of the pronunciation of the French place-name Lyon.

In Breton, the symbol ñ after a vowel means that the letter n serves only to give the vowel a nasalised pronunciation, without being itself pronounced, as it normally is. For example an gives the pronunciation [ãn] whereas gives [ã].

### Palatal n

{{#invoke:main|main}} The tilded n (ñ, Ñ) developed from the digraph nn in Spanish. In this language, ñ is considered a separate letter called eñe (Template:IPA-es), rather than a letter-diacritic combination; it is placed in Spanish dictionaries between the letters n and o. In addition, the word tilde can refer to any diacritic in this language; for example, the acute accent in José is also called a tilde in Spanish.[6] Current languages in which the tilded n (ñ) is used for the palatal nasal consonant /ɲ/ include:

### Tone

In Vietnamese, a tilde over a vowel represents a creaky rising tone (ngã).

### International Phonetic Alphabet

In phonetics, a tilde is used as a diacritic either placed above a letter, below it or superimposed onto the middle of it (see International Phonetic Alphabet → Diacritics):

### Letter extension

In Estonian, the symbol õ stands for the close-mid back unrounded vowel, and it is considered an independent letter.

### Other uses

Some languages and alphabets use the tilde for other purposes:

• Arabic script: A symbol resembling the tilde (maddah Template:Unichar) is used over the letter ا (/a/) to become آ, denoting a long /aː/ sound ([ʔæː]).
• Guaraní: The tilded (note that G/g with tilde is not available as a precomposed glyph in Unicode) stands for the velar nasal consonant. Also, the tilded y () stands for the nasalized upper central rounded vowel [ɨ̃]. A small number of other alphabets also use .
• Unicode has a combining vertical tilde character,  ̾  (U+033E). It is used to indicate middle tone in linguistic transcription of certain dialects of the Lithuanian language[7] and for transliteration of the Cyrillic palatalization sign,  ҄  (U+0484).{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} ### Precomposed Unicode characters The following characters using the tilde as a diacritic exist as precomposed Unicode characters: Character Code point Name U+00C3 Ã LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH TILDE U+00D1 Ñ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE U+00D5 Õ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE U+00E3 ã LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH TILDE U+00F1 ñ LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH TILDE U+00F5 õ LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE U+0128 Ĩ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH TILDE U+0129 ĩ LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH TILDE U+0168 Ũ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH TILDE U+0169 ũ LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH TILDE U+019F Ɵ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+022C Ȭ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE AND MACRON U+022D ȭ LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE AND MACRON U+026B ɫ LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D6C LATIN SMALL LETTER B WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D6D LATIN SMALL LETTER D WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D6E LATIN SMALL LETTER F WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D6F LATIN SMALL LETTER M WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D70 LATIN SMALL LETTER N WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D71 LATIN SMALL LETTER P WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D72 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D73 LATIN SMALL LETTER R WITH FISHHOOK AND MIDDLE TILDE U+1D74 LATIN SMALL LETTER S WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D75 LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1D76 LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH MIDDLE TILDE U+1E1A LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH TILDE BELOW U+1E1B LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH TILDE BELOW U+1E2C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER I WITH TILDE BELOW U+1E2D LATIN SMALL LETTER I WITH TILDE BELOW U+1E4C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE AND ACUTE U+1E4D LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE AND ACUTE U+1E4E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH TILDE AND DIAERESIS U+1E4F LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH TILDE AND DIAERESIS U+1E74 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH TILDE BELOW U+1E75 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH TILDE BELOW U+1E78 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH TILDE AND ACUTE U+1E79 LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH TILDE AND ACUTE U+1E7C LATIN CAPITAL LETTER V WITH TILDE U+1E7D LATIN SMALL LETTER V WITH TILDE U+1EAA LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX AND TILDE U+1EAB LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH CIRCUMFLEX AND TILDE U+1EB4 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE AND TILDE U+1EB5 LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE AND TILDE U+1EBC LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH TILDE U+1EBD LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH TILDE U+1EC4 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX AND TILDE U+1EC5 LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH CIRCUMFLEX AND TILDE U+1ED6 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX AND TILDE U+1ED7 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH CIRCUMFLEX AND TILDE U+1EE0 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH HORN AND TILDE U+1EE1 LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH HORN AND TILDE U+1EEE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER U WITH HORN AND TILDE U+1EEF LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH HORN AND TILDE U+1EF8 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Y WITH TILDE U+1EF9 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y WITH TILDE U+2C62 LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH MIDDLE TILDE ## Similar characters There are a number of Unicode characters similar to the tilde. Character Code point Name Comments ~ U+007E TILDE Same as keyboard tilde. In-line. ˜ U+02DC SMALL TILDE Raised but quite small. ◌̃ U+0303 COMBINING TILDE ͊ U+034A COMBINING NOT TILDE ABOVE Raised, small, with slash through. U+0342 COMBINING GREEK PERISPOMENI Used as an Ancient Greek accent under the name "circumflex"; it can also be written as an inverted breve. ◌̰ U+0330 COMBINING TILDE BELOW Used in IPA to indicate creaky voice ◌̴ U+0334 COMBINING TILDE OVERLAY Used in IPA to indicate velarization or pharyngealization ס֘ U+0598 HEBREW ACCENT ZARQA Hebrew cantillation mark ס֮ U+05AE HEBREW ACCENT ZINOR Hebrew cantillation mark ◌᷉ U+1DC9 COMBINING ACUTE-GRAVE-ACUTE Used in IPA as a tone mark U+2053 SWUNG DASH U+223C TILDE OPERATOR Used in mathematics. In-line. Ends not curved as much. U+223D REVERSED TILDE In some fonts it is the tilde's simple mirror image; others extend the tips to resemble a U+223F SINE WAVE U+2248 ALMOST EQUAL TO U+301C WAVE DASH Used in Japanese punctuation U+3030 WAVY DASH U+FE4B WAVY OVERLINE U+FE4F WAVY LOW LINE U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE 50% wider. In-line. Ends not curved much. ## ASCII tilde (U+007E)  Serif: —~— Sans-serif: —~— Monospace: —~— A tilde between two em dashesin three font families Raised tilde from a dot matrix printer Most modern proportional fonts align plain spacing tilde at the same level as dashes, or only slightly upper. This distinguish it from small tilde ˜, which is always raised. But in some monospace fonts, especially used in text user interfaces, ASCII tilde character is raised too. This apparently is a legacy of typewriters, where pairs of similar spacing and combining characters relied on one glyph. Even in line printers' age character repertoires were often not large enough to distinguish between plain tilde, small tilde and combining tilde. Overprinting of a letter by the tilde was a working method of combining a letter. ## Punctuation The swung dash (~) is used in various ways in punctuation: ### Range In some languages (though not English), a tilde-like wavy dash may be used as punctuation (instead of an unspaced hyphen or en-dash) between two numbers, to indicate a range rather than subtraction or a hyphenated number (such as a part number or model number). Before a number the tilde is used to mean "approximately"; "~42" means "approximately 42".[8] Japanese and other East Asian languages almost always use this convention, but it is often done for clarity in some other languages as well. Chinese uses the wavy dash and full-width em dash interchangeably for this purpose. In English, the tilde is often used to express ranges and model numbers in electronics but rarely in formal grammar or type-set documents, as a wavy dash preceding a number sometimes represents an approximation (see the Mathematics section, below). ### Japanese The Template:Nihongo is used for various purposes in Japanese, including to denote ranges of numbers, in place of dashes or brackets, and to indicate origin. The wave dash is also used to separate a title and a subtitle in the same line, as a colon is used in English. When used in conversations via email or instant messenger it may be used as a sarcasm mark. The sign is used as a replacement for the chouon, katakana character, in Japanese, extending the final syllable. In informal messaging in China and in South Korea the tilde is sometimes used at the end of sentences to indicate a semi-excited but not alarmed tone; somewhere between a "." and a "!".[9]{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

#### Unicode and Shift JIS encoding of wave dash

Template:Double image In practice the Template:Nihongo, Unicode U+FF5E, is often used instead of the Template:Nihongo, Unicode U+301C, because the Shift JIS code for the wave dash, 0x8160, which is supposed to be mapped to U+301C,[10][11] is not mapped to U+301C but mapped to U+FF5E[12] in code page 932 (Microsoft's code page for Japanese), a widely used extension of Shift JIS, in order to avoid the shape definition error in Unicode: the wave dash glyph in JIS/Shift JIS[13] is identical to the Unicode reference glyph for U+FF5E,[14] while the reference glyph for U+301C[15] was incorrectly turned upside down when Unicode imported the JIS wave dash. In other platforms such as Mac OS and Mac OS X, 0x8160 is correctly mapped to U+301C. It is generally difficult, if not impossible, for users of Japanese Windows to type U+301C, especially in legacy, non-Unicode applications.

Nevertheless, the Japanese wave dash is still formally mapped to U+301C as of JIS X 0213. Those two code points have the identical or very similar glyph in several fonts, reducing the confusion and incompatibility.

## Mathematics

### As an unary operator

A tilde in front of a single quantity can mean "approximately", "about" or "of the same order of magnitude as".

In written mathematical logic, the tilde represents negation: "~p" means "not p", where "p" is a proposition. Modern use has been replacing the tilde with the negation symbol (¬) for this purpose, to avoid confusion with equivalence relations.

### Games

In many games, the tilde key (on U.S. English keyboards) is used to open the console. This is true for games such as Battlefield 3, Half-Life, Halo CE, Quake, Half-Life 2, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Unreal, Counter-Strike, Crysis, Morrowind, Oblivion, Skyrim, Fallout: New Vegas, Fallout 3, RuneScape, and others based on the Quake engine or Source engine.

It is sometimes used in Rogue-like games to represent water or snakes.

### Other uses

Computer programmers use the tilde in various ways and sometimes call the symbol (as opposed to the diacritic) a squiggle, squiggly, or twiddle. According to the Jargon File, other synonyms sometimes used in programming include not, approx, wiggle, enyay (after eñe) and (humorously) sqiggle Template:IPAc-en. It is used in many languages as a binary inversion operator, swapping a number's binary 1's and 0's for example ~18 (binary ~1010) is equal to 9 (binary 0101).

In Perl 6, "~~" is used instead of "=~".

## Juggling notation

In the juggling notation system Beatmap, tilde can be added to either "hand" in a pair of fields to say "cross the arms with this hand on top". Mills Mess is thus represented as (~2x,1)(1,2x)(2x,~1)*.[27]

## Keyboards

Where a tilde is on the keyboard depends on the computer's language settings according to the following chart. On many keyboards it is primarily available through a dead key that makes it possible to produce a variety of precomposed characters with the diacritic.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |\$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }} In that case, a single tilde can typically be inserted with the dead key followed by the space bar, or alternatively by striking the dead key twice in a row.

To insert a tilde with the dead key, it is often necessary to simultaneously hold down the Alt Gr key. On the keyboard layouts that include an Alt Gr key, it typically takes the place of the right-hand Alt key. With a Macintosh either of the Alt/Option keys function similarly.

In the US and European Windows systems, the Alt code for a single tilde is 126.

Keyboard Insert a single tilde (~) Insert a precomposed character with tilde (e.g. ã)
Arabic (Saudi) Template:Keypress
Croatian
Danish Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Dvorak Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or

Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress

Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter, or

Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter

English (Australia) Template:Keypress
English (UK) Template:Keypress
English (US) Template:Keypress Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Faroese Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Finnish Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
French (Canada) Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
French (France) Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or

Template:KeypressTemplate:Keypress
Template:Keypress (on Mac OS X)

Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
French (Switzerland) Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
German (Germany) Template:Keypress
German (Switzerland) Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Hebrew (Israel) Template:Keypress Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Hindi (India) Template:Keypress+ the key to the left of Template:Keypress
Hungarian
Icelandic Template:Keypress (the same key as Template:Keypress)
Italian Template:Keypress (on Mac OS X)

Template:Keypress (on Linux)

Norwegian Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or

On Mac: Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress.

Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter.

On Mac: Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter.

Polish Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, The dead key is not generally used for inserting characters with tilde; when followed by {a|c|e|l|n|o|s|x|z}, it results in {ą|ć|ę|ł|ń|ó|ś|ź|ż} instead.
Portuguese Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Slovak
Spanish (Spain) Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Spanish (Latin America) Template:Keypress
Swedish Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter
Turkish Template:Keypress followed by Template:Keypress, or Template:Keypress followed by the relevant letter

## References

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7. Lithuanian Standards Board (LST), proposal for a zigazag diacritic.
8. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}.
9. Chinese Friends
10. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}.
11. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}.
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