# Truncated normal distribution

In probability and statistics, the truncated normal distribution is the probability distribution of a normally distributed random variable whose value is either bounded below or above (or both). The truncated normal distribution has wide applications in statistics and econometrics. For example, it is used to model the probabilities of the binary outcomes in the probit model and to model censored data in the Tobit model.

## Definition

$f(x;\mu ,\sigma ,a,b)={\frac {{\frac {1}{\sigma }}\phi ({\frac {x-\mu }{\sigma }})}{\Phi ({\frac {b-\mu }{\sigma }})-\Phi ({\frac {a-\mu }{\sigma }})}}$ and by ƒ=0 otherwise.

## Moments

Two sided truncation:

$\operatorname {E} (X\mid a $\operatorname {Var} (X\mid a One sided truncation (upper tail):

$\operatorname {E} (X\mid X>a)=\mu +\sigma \lambda (\alpha )\!$ $\operatorname {Var} (X\mid X>a)=\sigma ^{2}[1-\delta (\alpha )],\!$ One sided truncation (lower tail):

$\operatorname {E} (X\mid X $\operatorname {Var} (X\mid X Barr and Sherrill (1999) give a simpler expression for the variance of one sided truncations. Their formula is in terms of the chi-square CDF, which is implemented in standard software libraries. Bebu and Mathew (2009) provide formulas for (generalized) confidence intervals around the truncated moments.

As for the non-truncated case, there is a neat recursive formula for the truncated moments. See.

## Simulating

For more on simulating a draw from the truncated normal distribution, see Robert (1995), Lynch (2007) Section 8.1.3 (pages 200–206), Devroye (1986). The MSM package in R has a function, rtnorm, that calculates draws from a truncated normal. The truncnorm package in R also has functions to draw from a truncated normal.

Chopin proposed an algorithm inspired from the Ziggurat algorithm of Marsaglia and Tsang (1984, 2000), which is usually considered as the fastest Gaussian sampler, and is also very close to Ahrens’s algorithm (1995). Implementations can be found in C, C++, Matlab and Python.

Sampling from the multivariate truncated normal distribution is considerably more difficult. Damien and Walker (2001) introduce a general methodology for sampling truncated densities within a Gibbs sampling framework. Their algorithm introduces one latent variable and is more computationally efficient than the algorithm of Robert (1995).